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  • Physical exam frequency - Animation

    Physical exam frequency

    Animation

  • Physical exam frequency - Animation

    When you feel perfectly fine, the last thing you want to think about is going to the doctor. But that's exactly when you should be thinking about getting a physical exam. Regular physicals, as well as certain tests and vaccinations can be powerful ways to protect health. Let's talk about physical exams. You might feel well on the outside, but it's hard to know exactly what's going on inside your body. Many conditions that threaten your health don't have any symptoms. For example, you might have no idea that you have high blood pressure or high cholesterol, until they make you really sick. How often you need to see your doctor and what tests you get depends on your age and gender. Regular physicals are important for keeping tabs on your health. Plan to see your doctor once every 1 to 5 years, depending on what conditions you have. After age 65, you'll visit the doctor at least once a year. At each physical, your height and weight will be checked and your hearing will be tested. Your doctor should ask whether you've experienced depression, and about your use of alcohol and tobacco. Get your blood pressure checked once every two years, once a year if you're over 65. Look for blood pressure screenings at health fairs or drug stores in your area, or visit your doctor. If you have a health condition like diabetes, heart disease, or kidney problems, you may need to check your blood pressure more often. If your blood pressure is high, you should also have your blood sugar levels tested for diabetes. Men who are over 34 and women over 45 need a cholesterol test once every 5 years. People with certain health conditions may need to have their cholesterol checked more often. Everyone between ages 50 and 75 should be screened for colon cancer, but African-Americans may want to start getting tested at age 45. You can have a colonoscopy every 10 years, a stool test every year, or a flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years. Women need a Pap smear to check for cervical cancer once every 2 to 3 years. They should also have a mammogram to check for breast cancer every 1 to 2 years, depending on their risks. Because bones can become brittle with age, women over 65 need to have a bone density scan. Younger women and men should talk to their doctor about whether they need this test, based on their risks. To keep your teeth strong and healthy, visit your dentist once a year for a cleaning and exam. Also see an eye doctor for an exam every 2 years, especially if you have glaucoma or another vision problem. One of the best ways to avoid unexpected doctor's visits is to get the vaccines that are right for you. Vaccines aren't just a kids issue. Many adults benefit from a flu vaccine each fall or early winter to protect them for the whole season. Once every 10 years, get a Tdap vaccine, which protects against tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis. Older adults may also need to get vaccinated against pneumonia and shingles. Getting regular physicals when you aren't sick can help you stay on top of your health. Being proactive will let you and your doctor prevent and find potential problems before you have a chance to get sick.

  • Uterine fibroids - Animation

    Uterine fibroids

    Animation

  • Uterine fibroids - Animation

    Uterine fibroids are common, non-cancerous or benign tumors that can grow in a woman's womb, or uterus. You might be surprised to learn that one in five women may have this sometimes painful problem during their childbearing years and half of all women will probably have them by age 50. So, let's talk about uterine fibroids. Fibroids are abnormal growths made of smooth muscle cells. The cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, but their growth has been linked to estrogen, a hormone that plays a vital role in pregnancy and how your body uses calcium and maintains healthy cholesterol levels. As long as a woman with fibroids is menstruating, a fibroid will probably continue to grow, usually slowly. As many as 40% though will shrink on their own. Fibroids can be tiny, detectable only by microscope, or they may grow very large, even filling the entire uterus. Most fibroids are small and cause no symptoms at all. If you do have symptoms, the most common symptoms of fibroids is heavy or prolonged periods. Bleeding between periods is not typical of fibroids. Fibroids can also cause fullness, pressure, or pain. For instance, a fibroid pressing on the bladder can make the bladder seem smaller, or more difficult to empty. A fibroid pressing on the rectum, can cause constipation. Particularly painful periods are often reported by many women with fibroids, especially those who pass blood clots or who have very heavy flow. Fibroids that change the shape of the inside of the uterus can make it difficult to conceive, or to carry a baby to term. To treat uterine fibroids, your doctor will first perform a pelvic exam to see if you have a change in the shape of your uterus. You may need an ultrasound or a pelvic MRI to confirm the diagnosis of fibroids. Your doctor may take a sample of tissue called a biopsy to rule out cancer. Once your doctor diagnoses fibroids, treatments may include birth control pills to manage heavy periods, intrauterine devices that release the hormone progestin to help reduce heavy bleeding and pain, or iron supplements to prevent or treat anemia due to heavy periods. Women who have fibroids growing inside the uterine cavity may need an outpatient procedure to remove the tumors. A procedure called uterine artery embolization can stop the blood supply to a fibroid, causing it to shrink and die. Surgery called myomectomy removes fibroids, especially for women who want to have children. Finally, some women may need a hysterectomy, or the removal of the uterus, if medicines do not work and other surgeries and procedures are not an option. Most women with fibroids may have no symptoms at all and may need no treatment at all. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow due to increased blood flow and estrogen levels. But they usually return to their original size after the baby is born. Call your health care provider if you have changes in your periods, including heavier bleeding, increased cramping, or a feeling of fullness or heaviness in your lower belly area.

  • Urinary tract infection - adults - Animation

    Urinary tract infection - adults

    Animation

  • Urinary tract infection - adults - Animation

    Using the bathroom is usually a no-brainer. You go, you flush, you wash. But sometimes, you can have a condition that makes it painful or difficult to go. If you're feeling pain or burning when you urinate, or you feel like you need to go all the time, the problem could be a urinary tract infection. Most often, you get a urinary tract infections when bacteria make their way into your bladder, kidneys, ureters, those tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, or the urethra, the tube that carries urine to the outside of your body. Unfortunately for women, they're more likely to get a urinary tract infection than men because they have a much shorter urethra. Bacteria can more easily slip into a woman's body after they have sex or use the bathroom. Certain conditions can also increase your risk of a urinary tract infection, including diabetes, pregnancy, kidney stones, an enlarged prostate in men, as well as urinary tract surgery. You can often tell you may have a urinary tract infection by the pain and burning whenever you urinate, and the constant urge to go. Your urine may look cloudy or bloody, and it might give off a bad smell. Your doctor can diagnose an infection by taking a urine sample and checking for bacteria. Occasionally different scans, including a CT and kidney scan, may be done to rule out other urinary problems. If you do have a urinary tract infection, you'll probably be prescribed antibiotics, drugs that kill bacteria. Also drink a lot of water and other fluids to help flush out the bacteria. Usually, antibiotics can knock out a urinary tract infection in a day or two. But like the unwelcome visitors they are, sometimes these infections keep coming back. You may need to keep taking antibiotics for a longer period of time. There are ways to help prevent getting urinary tract infections, like drinking a lot of fluids, perhaps including cranberry juice. Probiotics, beneficial bacteria may also help prevent urinary tract infections. Women should be careful about their hygiene. Always wipe from front to back after using the bathroom, urinate before and after sexual activity, and keep your genital area clean. If you use a diaphragm with spermicide, consider changing contraceptives. For post menopausal women, topical estrogen greatly reduces urinary tract infections. Recurrent, uncomplicated urinary tract infections are very common in non pregnant, healthy young women. Thankfully, they are easy to treat and are unlikely to lead to other health problems.

  • Menopause - Animation

    Menopause

    Animation

  • Menopause - Animation

    You're a woman nearing middle age. It's that time in your life when your periods are starting to stop and your body is going through changes. You may be starting to have hot flashes that you've heard about before. Could menopause be around the corner?So, what is menopause?Menopause typically happens to women somewhere around the ages of 45 to 55. During menopause, your ovaries stop making eggs and produce less estrogen and progesterone, hormones that play a vital role in pregnancy and how your body uses calcium and maintains healthy cholesterol levels, among other things. Changes in these hormones cause menopause symptoms. You will often begin having fewer periods, and eventually they stop. Menopause is complete when you have not had a period for over a year. Women who are post-menopausal can no longer get pregnant without a donor egg. Symptoms can vary from woman to woman. And these symptoms may last 5 or more years. Also, some women have worse symptoms than others. The first thing you may notice is that your periods start to change. They might occur more often or less often. Some women get their period every 3 weeks during menopause. These changes may last several years before periods completely stop. Other common symptoms include your heart pounding or racing, hot flashes, night sweats, skin flushing, and problems sleeping. You may have a decreased interest in sex, develop forgetfulness, have headaches, and suffer from mood swings, and have vaginal dryness and painful sexual intercourse. Treatment for menopause depends on many things, including how bad your symptoms are, your overall health, and your preference. It may include lifestyle changes or hormone therapy. Hormone therapy may help if you have severe hot flashes, night sweats, mood problems, or vaginal dryness. Hormone therapy is treatment with estrogen and, sometimes, progesterone. Talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of hormone therapy. Hormone therapy may increase your risk of developing breast cancer, heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots. Topical hormone therapy has some of the benefits and fewer of the risks. Your doctor can tell you about other options besides taking hormones, including antidepressants, a blood pressure medicine called clonidine, and Gabapentin, a seizure drug that can help reduce hot flashes. Lifestyle changes may help in reducing your menopause symptoms, though it's not been proven. You might consider trying to avoid caffeine, alcohol, and certain spicy foods. Or to try eating soy foods and other legumes, because they contain phytoestrogens. You'll want to remember to get plenty of calcium and vitamin D in your food or supplements, and plenty of exercise especially during this time. Consider Kegel exercises every day to strengthen the muscles of the vagina and pelvis. Practice slow, deep breathing if you feel a hot flash coming on. Yoga, tai chi, or meditation may also helpful. After menopause, you may be at risk for bone loss, higher cholesterol, and heart disease, so make sure you work with your doctor to manage or even prevent these problems.

  • Cervical cancer - Animation

    Cervical cancer

    Animation

  • Cervical cancer - Animation

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. Luckily, it's much less common in the United States due to women receiving recommended routine Pap smears, the test designed to find cervical cancer sometimes even before abnormal cells turn to cancer. Cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of the cervix, the lower portion of the uterus. There are two types of cells on the surface of the cervix, squamous and columnar. Most cervical cancers come from these squamous cells. The cancer usually starts very slowly as a condition called dysplasia. This precancerous condition can be detected by Pap smear and is 100% treatable. Undetected, precancerous changes can develop into cervical cancer and spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. It can take years for these precancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer. However, patients with cervical cancer do not usually have problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread. Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms of advanced cancer may include back pain, bone fractures, fatigue, heavy vaginal bleeding, urine leakage, leg pain, loss of appetite, and pelvic pain. If after having a Pap smear, the doctor finds abnormal changes on the cervix, a colposcopy can be ordered. Using a light and a low-powered microscope, the doctor will view the cervix under magnification. The doctor may remove pieces of tissue, called a biopsy, and send the sample to a laboratory for testing. If the woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer, the doctor will order more tests to determine how far the cancer has spread. This is called Staging. Treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer, the size and shape of the tumor, the woman's age and general health, and her desire to have children in the future. Early cervical cancer can be treated with surgery just to remove abnormal tissue, freeze abnormal cells, or burn abnormal tissue. Treatment for more advanced cervical cancer may include radical hysterectomy, removal of the uterus and much of the surrounding tissue, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina. Radiation may be used to treat cancer that has spread beyond the pelvis, or if cancer returns. The woman may also have chemotherapy to kill cancer cells. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by human papilloma virus, or HPV. This common virus is spread through sexual intercourse. HPV vaccines can prevent infection against the two types of HPV responsible for about 70% of cervical cancer. Practicing safe sex also reduces the risk of getting HPV. But, keep in mind most women diagnosed with cervical cancer have not had their regular Pap smears. Because Pap smears can find precancerous growths that are 100% treatable, it's very important for women to get Pap smears at regular intervals.

  • Pap smear - Animation

    Pap smear

    Animation

  • Pap smear - Animation

    If you're a woman 21 or over, it's important to begin getting regular pelvic examinations to take charge of your health. An important part of this pelvic exam may include a test, called a Pap smear, to detect the often life-threatening disease, cervical cancer, even before it starts. And here's the key, cervical cells become abnormal years before they turn to cancer. That gives an excellent window of opportunity. So, what is a Pap smear?A Pap smear is a microscopic examination of cells scraped from the opening of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, or womb, that opens at the top of the vagina. The test looks for cervical cancer or abnormal cells. Most cervical cancers can be found, and treated early, or even before they start, if women have routine Pap smears and pelvic examinations. For this test, you will lie on a table and place your feet in stirrups. The doctor will insert an instrument called a speculum into the vagina and open it slightly to see inside the vaginal canal. Cells are gently scraped from the cervix area, and sent to a lab for examination. When a Pap smear shows abnormal changes, you will need further testing. The next step depends on the results of the Pap smear, and on your previous history of Pap smears, and risk factors you may have for cervical cancer. You may need a biopsy using a light and a low-powered microscope, called colposcopy. You may also need a test to check for infection with human papilloma virus, or HPV, which can cause cervical cancer. If you are diagnosed with cervical cancer, the doctor will order more tests to determine how you should be treated, and how far the cancer has spread. This is called staging. Treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer, the size and shape of the tumor, your age and general health, and your desire to have children in the future. Early cervical cancer can be treated with surgery to remove the abnormal tissue, or freeze abnormal cells, or burn abnormal tissue. Treatment for more advanced cervical cancer may include radical hysterectomy, removal of the uterus and much of the surrounding tissue, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina. Radiation may be used to treat cancer that has spread beyond the pelvis, or if cancer returns. The woman may also have chemotherapy to kill the cancer if the cervical cancer's advanced. The Pap smear test is not 100% accurate and cervical cancer may be missed in a small number of cases. Fortunately, cervical cancer develops very slowly in most women and follow-up Pap smears should identify worrisome changes in plenty of time for treatment. Make sure your doctor knows about all the medicines you are taking. Some, including estrogen and progestins, may affect the result of your Pap smear. Pap smears can be a wonderful, life saving tool.

  • Kidney stones - Animation

    Kidney stones

    Animation

  • Kidney stones - Animation

    If you ever have severe pain in your belly or one side of your back that comes and goes suddenly, you may be passing a kidney stone. Let's talk about the painful condition of kidney stones. A kidney stone is a mass of tiny crystals in your kidney or urinary tract. Stones are quite common, and tend to run in families. They can form in weeks or months when your urine contains too much of certain substances. There are several kinds of kidney stones. Calcium stones are by far the most common kind. They often form in men between the ages of 20 to 30. Calcium can combine with other substances found in your food, like oxalate, phosphate, or carbonate, to form stones. Cystine stones can form in people who have cystinuria, a condition passed down through families in which stones are made from an amino acid called cystine. Struvite stones are found mostly in women who have urinary tract infections. These stones can grow very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder. Uric acid stones are more common in men than in women. They can occur in people who have a history of gout or are going through chemotherapy. So, how do you know if you have kidney stones?Well, you may not have symptoms until the stone move down the ureter tubes through which urine empties into your bladder. When this happens, the stones can block the flow of urine out of your kidneys. The main symptom is severe sharp pain that starts suddenly, usually in your belly or one side of your back, and it may go away just as quickly. Other symptoms can include abnormal urine color, blood in your urine, fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting. So, what do you do about kidney stones?Well, your health care provider will perform a physical exam. You may need blood tests, kidney function tests, and tests that look for crystals in your urine. Several imaging tests, like a CT scan, can see stones or a blockage in your urinary tract. Treatment will depend on the type of stone you have, and how bad your symptoms are. Small kidney stones that are less than 5 mm in diameter will usually pass on their own. You should drink at least 6 to 8 glasses of water per day to produce a large enough amount of urine to help bring the stone out. Pain can be pretty bad when you pass a kidney stone, so your doctor may prescribe pain medicines to help as well as medications that will help the stone pass. Other medicines can decrease stone formation or help break down and remove the material that is causing you to make stones. You may need surgery if the stone is too large to pass, the stone is growing, or the stone is blocking your urine flow. Kidney stones are painful, but you can usually pass them without causing permanent harm. However, kidney stones often come back, so you and your doctor will need to work on finding the cause of your stone. Lastly, delaying treatment can lead to serious complications, so if you think that you have kidney stones see your doctor right away.

  • Urinary incontinence - Animation

    Urinary incontinence

    Animation

  • Urinary incontinence - Animation

    When you enter a store or restaurant, are you often looking to find the establishments bathroom? If you're having trouble holding in your urine, or if you often leak urine, you probably have what's called urinary incontinence. Normally, the bladder begins to fill with urine from the kidneys. The bladder stretches to allow more and more urine. You should feel the first urge to urinate when there is about 200 mL, just under 1 cup of urine stored in your bladder. A healthy nervous system will respond to this stretching sensation by letting you know that you have to urinate. But, at the same time, the bladder should keep filling. But the system doesn't work correctly in people with urinary incontinence. Some people with urinary incontinence leak urine during activities like coughing, sneezing, laughing, or exercise. This is called stress incontinence. When you have a sudden, strong need to urinate, but can't make it to the bathroom before you do urinate, it's called urge incontinence. Other people have what's called overflow incontinence, when the bladder cannot empty and they dribble. Urinary incontinence can have many causes, and it's most common in older adults. Women are more likely than men to have it. For some people the bladder muscle is overactive. For others, the muscles holding the urine in are weak. And for others, the problem is sensing when the bladder is full. They might have brain or nerve problems, dementia or other health problems that make it hard to feel and respond to the urge to urinate, or problems with the urinary system itself. To treat urinary incontinence, your doctor can help you form a treatment plan. Most likely, exercises to strengthen the muscles of your pelvic floor will be part of that plan. Bladder training exercises can also be effective. And depending on the cause of incontinence, oral medications, or topical estrogen may be helpful. If you have overflow incontinence and cannot empty your bladder completely, you may need to use a catheter. Your doctor can recommend the best catheter for you. For urine leaks, you might wear absorbent pads or undergarments. Whatever else you try, lifestyle changes may help. Aim for an ideal weight. Losing excess weight and increasing exercise both often improve incontinence, especially in women. Also, some specific beverages and foods might increase leaking in some people. For instance, you might try eliminating alcohol, caffeine, carbonated beverages, even decaf coffee. Drink plenty of water, but DO NOT drink anything 2 to 4 hours before going to bed. Be sure to empty your bladder before going to bed to help prevent urine leakage at night. Throughout the day, urinate at set times, even if you do not feel the urge. Schedule yourself every 3 to 4 hours. Urinary incontinence is very common, but many people never talk to their doctor about it. Don't let that be you. See your doctor and bring it up at your next doctor's visit.

  • Cholesterol and triglyceride test - Animation

    Cholesterol and triglyceride test

    Animation

  • Cholesterol and triglyceride test - Animation

    Maybe you've been eating fast food more often than you should, or you're not getting your recommended two-and-a-half hours of exercise each week. Or, it could be that you smoke, or your blood pressure is too high. Well, for whatever reason, you may be concerned about your risk of getting heart disease. Well, a few tests can help you learn that risk, so you can start making healthy lifestyle changes to reduce it. A coronary risk profile is a group of blood tests that measure your cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Why is it important to know these levels? Because if you have too much of these substances in your blood from eating foods like burgers and French fries, they can clog your arteries. Eventually your arteries can become so clogged that you'll have a heart attack or stroke. Men should have their cholesterol tested by the time they're 35. Women should have it checked by age 45. If you have a condition like diabetes, heart disease, stroke, or high blood pressure, have your cholesterol checked now, no matter what your age. To measure your cholesterol, your doctor will give you a blood test. If you're also having your triglyceride level checked, you may be told not to eat or drink anything for 8 to 12 hours before the test. Depending upon your heart risk, the doctor may measure just your total cholesterol level, or your total cholesterol along with your LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, HDL, or "good" cholesterol, and triglycerides. If you're of average risk of getting heart disease, your goal is to have total cholesterol of less than 200 milligrams per deciliter, LDL cholesterol lower than 130 milligrams per deciliter, HDL cholesterol higher than 40 milligrams per deciliter if you're a man, or 50 if you're a woman -- the higher the better, and triglycerides of less than 150 also, the lower the better. Although some illnesses, like arthritis, can raise your cholesterol level, generally having high cholesterol means that you're at increased risk for heart disease and stroke. It's a sign you need to work harder to keep your heart healthy. If your cholesterol levels are normal, that's great! That means that you're eating right, you're exercising, and you're taking good care of your health. You don't need to have another cholesterol test for about five years. But if your cholesterol level is high, or you've already got heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes, you'll need to have your cholesterol levels checked more often. Keeping close tabs on your cholesterol and triglyceride levels is one way that you can take charge of your health, and change it for the better.

  • Ultrasound - Animation

    Ultrasound

    Animation

  • Ultrasound - Animation

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two-dimensional image of the baby while inside the mother's uterus. The sound waves bounce off solid structures in the body and are transformed into an image on a monitor screen. Solid structures, such as bones and muscles, reflect sound waves and appear as light gray or white. Soft or hollow areas, like the chambers of the heart, don't reflect sound waves and appear dark or black. An ultrasound can supply vital information about a mother's pregnancy and her baby's health. Even though there are no known risks for ultrasound at present, it is highly recommended that pregnant women consult their physician before undergoing this procedure.

  • Causes of breast lumps

    Causes of breast lumps

    Most breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous), as in fibroadenoma, a condition that mostly affects women under age 30. Fibrocystic breast changes occur in more than 60% of all women. Fibrocystic breast cysts change in size with the menstrual cycle, whereas a lump from fibroadenoma does not. While most breast lumps are benign, it is important to identify those that are not. See your health care provider if a lump is new, persistent, growing, hard, immobile, or causing skin deformities.

    Causes of breast lumps

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  • Alcoholism

    Alcoholism

    Alcoholism is a chronic illness marked by dependence on alcohol consumption that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount may harm the fetus.

    Alcoholism

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  • Alcoholism

    Alcoholism

    Alcoholism is a chronic illness marked by dependence on alcohol consumption that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount may harm the fetus.

    Alcoholism

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  • Urine sample

    Urine sample

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before it is collected (this clears the urethra of contaminants). Then, in a clean container, catch about 1 to 2 ounces of urine and remove the container from the urine stream. The container is then given to the health care provider.

    Urine sample

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  • Diet and good health

    Diet and good health

    A well-balanced diet is appropriate for a person of any age. A healthy diet is especially important for children since a variety of food is needed for proper development. Other elements of good health include exercise, rest and avoidance of stimulants such as sugar and caffeine.

    Diet and good health

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  • Types of health care providers

    Types of health care providers

    Health care providers range from generalists to providers who specialize in certain areas of the body or disease. Any category of medicine or care such as cancer or anesthesia can have a specialist. Nurses also can specialize in certain areas of medical care.

    Types of health care providers

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  • Obesity and health

    Obesity and health

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of cancer. It is also a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis and sleep apnea.

    Obesity and health

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  • Tobacco health risks

    Tobacco health risks

    In general, chronic exposure to cigarette smoking may cause increased risk of cancer, COPD, coronary artery disease, stroke, fetal illnesses, and delayed wound healing.

    Tobacco health risks

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  • Humidifiers and health

    Humidifiers and health

    Humidifiers help raise the level of humidity or moisture in the air. Increasing the humidity in the home helps eliminate the dry air that can irritate and inflame the respiratory passages in the nose and throat. Humidified air can relieve the discomfort of colds and the flu, and help people who suffer from asthma.

    Humidifiers and health

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  • Appendectomy  - series

    Appendectomy - series

    Presentation

  • Osmolality urine - series

    Osmolality urine - series

    Presentation

  • Physical exam frequency - Animation

    Physical exam frequency

    Animation

  • Physical exam frequency - Animation

    When you feel perfectly fine, the last thing you want to think about is going to the doctor. But that's exactly when you should be thinking about getting a physical exam. Regular physicals, as well as certain tests and vaccinations can be powerful ways to protect health. Let's talk about physical exams. You might feel well on the outside, but it's hard to know exactly what's going on inside your body. Many conditions that threaten your health don't have any symptoms. For example, you might have no idea that you have high blood pressure or high cholesterol, until they make you really sick. How often you need to see your doctor and what tests you get depends on your age and gender. Regular physicals are important for keeping tabs on your health. Plan to see your doctor once every 1 to 5 years, depending on what conditions you have. After age 65, you'll visit the doctor at least once a year. At each physical, your height and weight will be checked and your hearing will be tested. Your doctor should ask whether you've experienced depression, and about your use of alcohol and tobacco. Get your blood pressure checked once every two years, once a year if you're over 65. Look for blood pressure screenings at health fairs or drug stores in your area, or visit your doctor. If you have a health condition like diabetes, heart disease, or kidney problems, you may need to check your blood pressure more often. If your blood pressure is high, you should also have your blood sugar levels tested for diabetes. Men who are over 34 and women over 45 need a cholesterol test once every 5 years. People with certain health conditions may need to have their cholesterol checked more often. Everyone between ages 50 and 75 should be screened for colon cancer, but African-Americans may want to start getting tested at age 45. You can have a colonoscopy every 10 years, a stool test every year, or a flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years. Women need a Pap smear to check for cervical cancer once every 2 to 3 years. They should also have a mammogram to check for breast cancer every 1 to 2 years, depending on their risks. Because bones can become brittle with age, women over 65 need to have a bone density scan. Younger women and men should talk to their doctor about whether they need this test, based on their risks. To keep your teeth strong and healthy, visit your dentist once a year for a cleaning and exam. Also see an eye doctor for an exam every 2 years, especially if you have glaucoma or another vision problem. One of the best ways to avoid unexpected doctor's visits is to get the vaccines that are right for you. Vaccines aren't just a kids issue. Many adults benefit from a flu vaccine each fall or early winter to protect them for the whole season. Once every 10 years, get a Tdap vaccine, which protects against tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis. Older adults may also need to get vaccinated against pneumonia and shingles. Getting regular physicals when you aren't sick can help you stay on top of your health. Being proactive will let you and your doctor prevent and find potential problems before you have a chance to get sick.

  • Uterine fibroids - Animation

    Uterine fibroids

    Animation

  • Uterine fibroids - Animation

    Uterine fibroids are common, non-cancerous or benign tumors that can grow in a woman's womb, or uterus. You might be surprised to learn that one in five women may have this sometimes painful problem during their childbearing years and half of all women will probably have them by age 50. So, let's talk about uterine fibroids. Fibroids are abnormal growths made of smooth muscle cells. The cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, but their growth has been linked to estrogen, a hormone that plays a vital role in pregnancy and how your body uses calcium and maintains healthy cholesterol levels. As long as a woman with fibroids is menstruating, a fibroid will probably continue to grow, usually slowly. As many as 40% though will shrink on their own. Fibroids can be tiny, detectable only by microscope, or they may grow very large, even filling the entire uterus. Most fibroids are small and cause no symptoms at all. If you do have symptoms, the most common symptoms of fibroids is heavy or prolonged periods. Bleeding between periods is not typical of fibroids. Fibroids can also cause fullness, pressure, or pain. For instance, a fibroid pressing on the bladder can make the bladder seem smaller, or more difficult to empty. A fibroid pressing on the rectum, can cause constipation. Particularly painful periods are often reported by many women with fibroids, especially those who pass blood clots or who have very heavy flow. Fibroids that change the shape of the inside of the uterus can make it difficult to conceive, or to carry a baby to term. To treat uterine fibroids, your doctor will first perform a pelvic exam to see if you have a change in the shape of your uterus. You may need an ultrasound or a pelvic MRI to confirm the diagnosis of fibroids. Your doctor may take a sample of tissue called a biopsy to rule out cancer. Once your doctor diagnoses fibroids, treatments may include birth control pills to manage heavy periods, intrauterine devices that release the hormone progestin to help reduce heavy bleeding and pain, or iron supplements to prevent or treat anemia due to heavy periods. Women who have fibroids growing inside the uterine cavity may need an outpatient procedure to remove the tumors. A procedure called uterine artery embolization can stop the blood supply to a fibroid, causing it to shrink and die. Surgery called myomectomy removes fibroids, especially for women who want to have children. Finally, some women may need a hysterectomy, or the removal of the uterus, if medicines do not work and other surgeries and procedures are not an option. Most women with fibroids may have no symptoms at all and may need no treatment at all. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow due to increased blood flow and estrogen levels. But they usually return to their original size after the baby is born. Call your health care provider if you have changes in your periods, including heavier bleeding, increased cramping, or a feeling of fullness or heaviness in your lower belly area.

  • Urinary tract infection - adults - Animation

    Urinary tract infection - adults

    Animation

  • Urinary tract infection - adults - Animation

    Using the bathroom is usually a no-brainer. You go, you flush, you wash. But sometimes, you can have a condition that makes it painful or difficult to go. If you're feeling pain or burning when you urinate, or you feel like you need to go all the time, the problem could be a urinary tract infection. Most often, you get a urinary tract infections when bacteria make their way into your bladder, kidneys, ureters, those tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, or the urethra, the tube that carries urine to the outside of your body. Unfortunately for women, they're more likely to get a urinary tract infection than men because they have a much shorter urethra. Bacteria can more easily slip into a woman's body after they have sex or use the bathroom. Certain conditions can also increase your risk of a urinary tract infection, including diabetes, pregnancy, kidney stones, an enlarged prostate in men, as well as urinary tract surgery. You can often tell you may have a urinary tract infection by the pain and burning whenever you urinate, and the constant urge to go. Your urine may look cloudy or bloody, and it might give off a bad smell. Your doctor can diagnose an infection by taking a urine sample and checking for bacteria. Occasionally different scans, including a CT and kidney scan, may be done to rule out other urinary problems. If you do have a urinary tract infection, you'll probably be prescribed antibiotics, drugs that kill bacteria. Also drink a lot of water and other fluids to help flush out the bacteria. Usually, antibiotics can knock out a urinary tract infection in a day or two. But like the unwelcome visitors they are, sometimes these infections keep coming back. You may need to keep taking antibiotics for a longer period of time. There are ways to help prevent getting urinary tract infections, like drinking a lot of fluids, perhaps including cranberry juice. Probiotics, beneficial bacteria may also help prevent urinary tract infections. Women should be careful about their hygiene. Always wipe from front to back after using the bathroom, urinate before and after sexual activity, and keep your genital area clean. If you use a diaphragm with spermicide, consider changing contraceptives. For post menopausal women, topical estrogen greatly reduces urinary tract infections. Recurrent, uncomplicated urinary tract infections are very common in non pregnant, healthy young women. Thankfully, they are easy to treat and are unlikely to lead to other health problems.

  • Menopause - Animation

    Menopause

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  • Menopause - Animation

    You're a woman nearing middle age. It's that time in your life when your periods are starting to stop and your body is going through changes. You may be starting to have hot flashes that you've heard about before. Could menopause be around the corner?So, what is menopause?Menopause typically happens to women somewhere around the ages of 45 to 55. During menopause, your ovaries stop making eggs and produce less estrogen and progesterone, hormones that play a vital role in pregnancy and how your body uses calcium and maintains healthy cholesterol levels, among other things. Changes in these hormones cause menopause symptoms. You will often begin having fewer periods, and eventually they stop. Menopause is complete when you have not had a period for over a year. Women who are post-menopausal can no longer get pregnant without a donor egg. Symptoms can vary from woman to woman. And these symptoms may last 5 or more years. Also, some women have worse symptoms than others. The first thing you may notice is that your periods start to change. They might occur more often or less often. Some women get their period every 3 weeks during menopause. These changes may last several years before periods completely stop. Other common symptoms include your heart pounding or racing, hot flashes, night sweats, skin flushing, and problems sleeping. You may have a decreased interest in sex, develop forgetfulness, have headaches, and suffer from mood swings, and have vaginal dryness and painful sexual intercourse. Treatment for menopause depends on many things, including how bad your symptoms are, your overall health, and your preference. It may include lifestyle changes or hormone therapy. Hormone therapy may help if you have severe hot flashes, night sweats, mood problems, or vaginal dryness. Hormone therapy is treatment with estrogen and, sometimes, progesterone. Talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of hormone therapy. Hormone therapy may increase your risk of developing breast cancer, heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots. Topical hormone therapy has some of the benefits and fewer of the risks. Your doctor can tell you about other options besides taking hormones, including antidepressants, a blood pressure medicine called clonidine, and Gabapentin, a seizure drug that can help reduce hot flashes. Lifestyle changes may help in reducing your menopause symptoms, though it's not been proven. You might consider trying to avoid caffeine, alcohol, and certain spicy foods. Or to try eating soy foods and other legumes, because they contain phytoestrogens. You'll want to remember to get plenty of calcium and vitamin D in your food or supplements, and plenty of exercise especially during this time. Consider Kegel exercises every day to strengthen the muscles of the vagina and pelvis. Practice slow, deep breathing if you feel a hot flash coming on. Yoga, tai chi, or meditation may also helpful. After menopause, you may be at risk for bone loss, higher cholesterol, and heart disease, so make sure you work with your doctor to manage or even prevent these problems.

  • Cervical cancer - Animation

    Cervical cancer

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  • Cervical cancer - Animation

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. Luckily, it's much less common in the United States due to women receiving recommended routine Pap smears, the test designed to find cervical cancer sometimes even before abnormal cells turn to cancer. Cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of the cervix, the lower portion of the uterus. There are two types of cells on the surface of the cervix, squamous and columnar. Most cervical cancers come from these squamous cells. The cancer usually starts very slowly as a condition called dysplasia. This precancerous condition can be detected by Pap smear and is 100% treatable. Undetected, precancerous changes can develop into cervical cancer and spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. It can take years for these precancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer. However, patients with cervical cancer do not usually have problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread. Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms of advanced cancer may include back pain, bone fractures, fatigue, heavy vaginal bleeding, urine leakage, leg pain, loss of appetite, and pelvic pain. If after having a Pap smear, the doctor finds abnormal changes on the cervix, a colposcopy can be ordered. Using a light and a low-powered microscope, the doctor will view the cervix under magnification. The doctor may remove pieces of tissue, called a biopsy, and send the sample to a laboratory for testing. If the woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer, the doctor will order more tests to determine how far the cancer has spread. This is called Staging. Treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer, the size and shape of the tumor, the woman's age and general health, and her desire to have children in the future. Early cervical cancer can be treated with surgery just to remove abnormal tissue, freeze abnormal cells, or burn abnormal tissue. Treatment for more advanced cervical cancer may include radical hysterectomy, removal of the uterus and much of the surrounding tissue, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina. Radiation may be used to treat cancer that has spread beyond the pelvis, or if cancer returns. The woman may also have chemotherapy to kill cancer cells. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by human papilloma virus, or HPV. This common virus is spread through sexual intercourse. HPV vaccines can prevent infection against the two types of HPV responsible for about 70% of cervical cancer. Practicing safe sex also reduces the risk of getting HPV. But, keep in mind most women diagnosed with cervical cancer have not had their regular Pap smears. Because Pap smears can find precancerous growths that are 100% treatable, it's very important for women to get Pap smears at regular intervals.

  • Pap smear - Animation

    Pap smear

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  • Pap smear - Animation

    If you're a woman 21 or over, it's important to begin getting regular pelvic examinations to take charge of your health. An important part of this pelvic exam may include a test, called a Pap smear, to detect the often life-threatening disease, cervical cancer, even before it starts. And here's the key, cervical cells become abnormal years before they turn to cancer. That gives an excellent window of opportunity. So, what is a Pap smear?A Pap smear is a microscopic examination of cells scraped from the opening of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, or womb, that opens at the top of the vagina. The test looks for cervical cancer or abnormal cells. Most cervical cancers can be found, and treated early, or even before they start, if women have routine Pap smears and pelvic examinations. For this test, you will lie on a table and place your feet in stirrups. The doctor will insert an instrument called a speculum into the vagina and open it slightly to see inside the vaginal canal. Cells are gently scraped from the cervix area, and sent to a lab for examination. When a Pap smear shows abnormal changes, you will need further testing. The next step depends on the results of the Pap smear, and on your previous history of Pap smears, and risk factors you may have for cervical cancer. You may need a biopsy using a light and a low-powered microscope, called colposcopy. You may also need a test to check for infection with human papilloma virus, or HPV, which can cause cervical cancer. If you are diagnosed with cervical cancer, the doctor will order more tests to determine how you should be treated, and how far the cancer has spread. This is called staging. Treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer, the size and shape of the tumor, your age and general health, and your desire to have children in the future. Early cervical cancer can be treated with surgery to remove the abnormal tissue, or freeze abnormal cells, or burn abnormal tissue. Treatment for more advanced cervical cancer may include radical hysterectomy, removal of the uterus and much of the surrounding tissue, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina. Radiation may be used to treat cancer that has spread beyond the pelvis, or if cancer returns. The woman may also have chemotherapy to kill the cancer if the cervical cancer's advanced. The Pap smear test is not 100% accurate and cervical cancer may be missed in a small number of cases. Fortunately, cervical cancer develops very slowly in most women and follow-up Pap smears should identify worrisome changes in plenty of time for treatment. Make sure your doctor knows about all the medicines you are taking. Some, including estrogen and progestins, may affect the result of your Pap smear. Pap smears can be a wonderful, life saving tool.

  • Kidney stones - Animation

    Kidney stones

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  • Kidney stones - Animation

    If you ever have severe pain in your belly or one side of your back that comes and goes suddenly, you may be passing a kidney stone. Let's talk about the painful condition of kidney stones. A kidney stone is a mass of tiny crystals in your kidney or urinary tract. Stones are quite common, and tend to run in families. They can form in weeks or months when your urine contains too much of certain substances. There are several kinds of kidney stones. Calcium stones are by far the most common kind. They often form in men between the ages of 20 to 30. Calcium can combine with other substances found in your food, like oxalate, phosphate, or carbonate, to form stones. Cystine stones can form in people who have cystinuria, a condition passed down through families in which stones are made from an amino acid called cystine. Struvite stones are found mostly in women who have urinary tract infections. These stones can grow very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder. Uric acid stones are more common in men than in women. They can occur in people who have a history of gout or are going through chemotherapy. So, how do you know if you have kidney stones?Well, you may not have symptoms until the stone move down the ureter tubes through which urine empties into your bladder. When this happens, the stones can block the flow of urine out of your kidneys. The main symptom is severe sharp pain that starts suddenly, usually in your belly or one side of your back, and it may go away just as quickly. Other symptoms can include abnormal urine color, blood in your urine, fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting. So, what do you do about kidney stones?Well, your health care provider will perform a physical exam. You may need blood tests, kidney function tests, and tests that look for crystals in your urine. Several imaging tests, like a CT scan, can see stones or a blockage in your urinary tract. Treatment will depend on the type of stone you have, and how bad your symptoms are. Small kidney stones that are less than 5 mm in diameter will usually pass on their own. You should drink at least 6 to 8 glasses of water per day to produce a large enough amount of urine to help bring the stone out. Pain can be pretty bad when you pass a kidney stone, so your doctor may prescribe pain medicines to help as well as medications that will help the stone pass. Other medicines can decrease stone formation or help break down and remove the material that is causing you to make stones. You may need surgery if the stone is too large to pass, the stone is growing, or the stone is blocking your urine flow. Kidney stones are painful, but you can usually pass them without causing permanent harm. However, kidney stones often come back, so you and your doctor will need to work on finding the cause of your stone. Lastly, delaying treatment can lead to serious complications, so if you think that you have kidney stones see your doctor right away.

  • Urinary incontinence - Animation

    Urinary incontinence

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  • Urinary incontinence - Animation

    When you enter a store or restaurant, are you often looking to find the establishments bathroom? If you're having trouble holding in your urine, or if you often leak urine, you probably have what's called urinary incontinence. Normally, the bladder begins to fill with urine from the kidneys. The bladder stretches to allow more and more urine. You should feel the first urge to urinate when there is about 200 mL, just under 1 cup of urine stored in your bladder. A healthy nervous system will respond to this stretching sensation by letting you know that you have to urinate. But, at the same time, the bladder should keep filling. But the system doesn't work correctly in people with urinary incontinence. Some people with urinary incontinence leak urine during activities like coughing, sneezing, laughing, or exercise. This is called stress incontinence. When you have a sudden, strong need to urinate, but can't make it to the bathroom before you do urinate, it's called urge incontinence. Other people have what's called overflow incontinence, when the bladder cannot empty and they dribble. Urinary incontinence can have many causes, and it's most common in older adults. Women are more likely than men to have it. For some people the bladder muscle is overactive. For others, the muscles holding the urine in are weak. And for others, the problem is sensing when the bladder is full. They might have brain or nerve problems, dementia or other health problems that make it hard to feel and respond to the urge to urinate, or problems with the urinary system itself. To treat urinary incontinence, your doctor can help you form a treatment plan. Most likely, exercises to strengthen the muscles of your pelvic floor will be part of that plan. Bladder training exercises can also be effective. And depending on the cause of incontinence, oral medications, or topical estrogen may be helpful. If you have overflow incontinence and cannot empty your bladder completely, you may need to use a catheter. Your doctor can recommend the best catheter for you. For urine leaks, you might wear absorbent pads or undergarments. Whatever else you try, lifestyle changes may help. Aim for an ideal weight. Losing excess weight and increasing exercise both often improve incontinence, especially in women. Also, some specific beverages and foods might increase leaking in some people. For instance, you might try eliminating alcohol, caffeine, carbonated beverages, even decaf coffee. Drink plenty of water, but DO NOT drink anything 2 to 4 hours before going to bed. Be sure to empty your bladder before going to bed to help prevent urine leakage at night. Throughout the day, urinate at set times, even if you do not feel the urge. Schedule yourself every 3 to 4 hours. Urinary incontinence is very common, but many people never talk to their doctor about it. Don't let that be you. See your doctor and bring it up at your next doctor's visit.

  • Cholesterol and triglyceride test - Animation

    Cholesterol and triglyceride test

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  • Cholesterol and triglyceride test - Animation

    Maybe you've been eating fast food more often than you should, or you're not getting your recommended two-and-a-half hours of exercise each week. Or, it could be that you smoke, or your blood pressure is too high. Well, for whatever reason, you may be concerned about your risk of getting heart disease. Well, a few tests can help you learn that risk, so you can start making healthy lifestyle changes to reduce it. A coronary risk profile is a group of blood tests that measure your cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Why is it important to know these levels? Because if you have too much of these substances in your blood from eating foods like burgers and French fries, they can clog your arteries. Eventually your arteries can become so clogged that you'll have a heart attack or stroke. Men should have their cholesterol tested by the time they're 35. Women should have it checked by age 45. If you have a condition like diabetes, heart disease, stroke, or high blood pressure, have your cholesterol checked now, no matter what your age. To measure your cholesterol, your doctor will give you a blood test. If you're also having your triglyceride level checked, you may be told not to eat or drink anything for 8 to 12 hours before the test. Depending upon your heart risk, the doctor may measure just your total cholesterol level, or your total cholesterol along with your LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, HDL, or "good" cholesterol, and triglycerides. If you're of average risk of getting heart disease, your goal is to have total cholesterol of less than 200 milligrams per deciliter, LDL cholesterol lower than 130 milligrams per deciliter, HDL cholesterol higher than 40 milligrams per deciliter if you're a man, or 50 if you're a woman -- the higher the better, and triglycerides of less than 150 also, the lower the better. Although some illnesses, like arthritis, can raise your cholesterol level, generally having high cholesterol means that you're at increased risk for heart disease and stroke. It's a sign you need to work harder to keep your heart healthy. If your cholesterol levels are normal, that's great! That means that you're eating right, you're exercising, and you're taking good care of your health. You don't need to have another cholesterol test for about five years. But if your cholesterol level is high, or you've already got heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes, you'll need to have your cholesterol levels checked more often. Keeping close tabs on your cholesterol and triglyceride levels is one way that you can take charge of your health, and change it for the better.

  • Ultrasound - Animation

    Ultrasound

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  • Ultrasound - Animation

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two-dimensional image of the baby while inside the mother's uterus. The sound waves bounce off solid structures in the body and are transformed into an image on a monitor screen. Solid structures, such as bones and muscles, reflect sound waves and appear as light gray or white. Soft or hollow areas, like the chambers of the heart, don't reflect sound waves and appear dark or black. An ultrasound can supply vital information about a mother's pregnancy and her baby's health. Even though there are no known risks for ultrasound at present, it is highly recommended that pregnant women consult their physician before undergoing this procedure.

  • Causes of breast lumps

    Causes of breast lumps

    Most breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous), as in fibroadenoma, a condition that mostly affects women under age 30. Fibrocystic breast changes occur in more than 60% of all women. Fibrocystic breast cysts change in size with the menstrual cycle, whereas a lump from fibroadenoma does not. While most breast lumps are benign, it is important to identify those that are not. See your health care provider if a lump is new, persistent, growing, hard, immobile, or causing skin deformities.

    Causes of breast lumps

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  • Alcoholism

    Alcoholism

    Alcoholism is a chronic illness marked by dependence on alcohol consumption that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount may harm the fetus.

    Alcoholism

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  • Alcoholism

    Alcoholism

    Alcoholism is a chronic illness marked by dependence on alcohol consumption that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount may harm the fetus.

    Alcoholism

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  • Urine sample

    Urine sample

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before it is collected (this clears the urethra of contaminants). Then, in a clean container, catch about 1 to 2 ounces of urine and remove the container from the urine stream. The container is then given to the health care provider.

    Urine sample

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  • Diet and good health

    Diet and good health

    A well-balanced diet is appropriate for a person of any age. A healthy diet is especially important for children since a variety of food is needed for proper development. Other elements of good health include exercise, rest and avoidance of stimulants such as sugar and caffeine.

    Diet and good health

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  • Types of health care providers

    Types of health care providers

    Health care providers range from generalists to providers who specialize in certain areas of the body or disease. Any category of medicine or care such as cancer or anesthesia can have a specialist. Nurses also can specialize in certain areas of medical care.

    Types of health care providers

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  • Obesity and health

    Obesity and health

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of cancer. It is also a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis and sleep apnea.

    Obesity and health

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  • Tobacco health risks

    Tobacco health risks

    In general, chronic exposure to cigarette smoking may cause increased risk of cancer, COPD, coronary artery disease, stroke, fetal illnesses, and delayed wound healing.

    Tobacco health risks

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  • Humidifiers and health

    Humidifiers and health

    Humidifiers help raise the level of humidity or moisture in the air. Increasing the humidity in the home helps eliminate the dry air that can irritate and inflame the respiratory passages in the nose and throat. Humidified air can relieve the discomfort of colds and the flu, and help people who suffer from asthma.

    Humidifiers and health

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  • Appendectomy  - series

    Appendectomy - series

    Presentation

  • Osmolality urine - series

    Osmolality urine - series

    Presentation

Review Date: 1/14/2018

Reviewed By: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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