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Doctor of medicine profession (MD)

Physician

MDs may be found within a wide range of practice settings, including private practices, group practices, hospitals, health maintenance organizations, teaching facilities, and public health organizations.

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  • Breast cancer - Animation

    Breast cancer

    Animation

  • Breast cancer - Animation

    Of all the different types of cancers, breast cancer is one of the most talked about, and with good reason. One out of every eight women will develop breast cancer sometime in their life. That's why every woman should be thinking about how to protect herself from this disease. Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the breast. Usually, it begins in the tubes that transport milk from the breast to the nipple. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the breast or body, it's called invasive breast cancer. Some breast cancers are more aggressive, growing more quickly than others. Although women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer, men can also get the disease because they do have breast tissue. You're more likely to get breast cancer if you're over 50, you started your periods before age 12, or you have a close family member with the disease. Drinking more than a couple of glasses of alcohol a day and using hormone replacement therapy for several years also may increase your risk. The telltale sign of breast cancer is a lump in your breast or armpit. You may also notice a change in the shape, size, or texture of your breast, or have fluid coming from your nipple when you're not breastfeeding. If you notice any changes in your breasts, call your doctor. You'll probably need to have an imaging scan, such as a mammogram, MRI, or ultrasound. A piece of tissue may be removed from your breast, called a biopsy. With these tests, your doctor can tell whether you have breast cancer, and if so, determine whether or not it has spread. So, how do we treat breast cancer?That really depends on the type of cancer, and how quickly it's spreading. Your doctor may recommend that you have the cancer removed with surgery. Sometimes it's enough just to remove the lump. That's called a lumpectomy. In other cases, the doctor will need to remove the entire breast to get rid of all the cancer or prevent it from coming back. That's called a mastectomy. Other treatments for breast cancer include chemotherapy, medicines that kill cancer cells, and radiation therapy, which uses energy to destroy cancer. Women whose cancer is fueled by the hormone estrogen may receive hormone therapy to block the effects of estrogen on their cancer. Today's breast cancer treatments are better than ever. Many women who have breast cancer go on to live long, healthy lives. The outlook really depends on how fast the tumor is growing, and how far it has spread. That's why it's so important to report any changes in your breasts to your doctor as soon as you notice them. Women who are at an especially high risk for breast cancer because of their family history can talk to their doctor about taking medicine or even having surgery to reduce their risk.

  • Stroke - Animation

    Stroke

    Animation

  • Stroke - Animation

    When blood flow to an area of your brain stops, it's serious. It's called a stroke, and will often cause permanent, debilitating damage to your brain and change your life. Let's talk about strokes. If blood flow to your brain is stopped for longer than a few seconds, your brain can't get blood and oxygen. Brain cells die, causing permanent damage. There are two types, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic stroke happens when a blood clot forms in a very small artery, or when a blood clot breaks off from another artery and lodges in your brain. Hemorrhagic strokes can happen when a blood vessel in your brain becomes weak and bursts open. High blood pressure is the number one risk factor for strokes. People with atrial fibrillation (when your heart rhythm is fast and irregular), diabetes, a family history of stroke, and high cholesterol are most at risk. You are also at risk for stroke if you are older than age 55. Other risk factors include being overweight, drinking too much alcohol, eating too much salt, and smoking. Symptoms of a stroke usually develop suddenly, without warning. You may have a severe headache that starts suddenly, especially when you are lying flat, often when you awake from sleep. Your alertness may suddenly change. You may notice changes in your hearing, your sense of taste, and your sense of touch. You may feel clumsy or confused or have trouble swallowing or writing. So, how are strokes treated? A stroke is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment might save your life and reduce disability. Call your local emergency number -- or have someone call for you -- at the first sign of a stroke. Most of the time, someone having a stroke should be in the hospital within three hours after symptoms first begin. If a doctor suspects you've had a stroke, the doctor will check for problems with your vision, movement, feeling, reflexes, and your ability to understand and speak. You may have several tests to check for blocked or narrowed arteries. If the stroke is caused by a blood clot, you'll be given a clot-busting drug to dissolve the clot. Treatment depends on how bad your stroke is and what caused it. But you will probably need to stay in the hospital for a few days. Besides clot-busting drugs (called thrombolytics), you may need blood thinners, medicine to control high blood pressure, and surgery to unclog one of your carotid arteries-which carry blood to the brain. After your stroke, treatment will focus on helping you recover as much function as possible, and preventing future strokes. Most people need stroke rehabilitation therapy. If you can return home, you may need help making safety changes in your home and to help you with using the bathroom, cooking, dressing, and moving around your home. After a stroke, some people have trouble speaking or communicating with others, and a speech therapist might help. Depending on the severity of the stroke, you may have trouble with thinking and memory, problems with your muscles, joints, and nerves, trouble going to the bathroom, and difficulty swallowing and eating. Therapies and support for you and your family are available to help with each of these problems. Your treatment will also focus on preventing another stroke. You may need to be on several medications to help prevent this. And, eating healthy and controlling problems like diabetes and high blood pressure can be very important.

  • Adolescent depression - Animation

    Adolescent depression

    Animation

  • Adolescent depression - Animation

    Teenagers are typically moody. They can go from upbeat to moping in a matter of seconds. It's normal for teens to feel sad from time to time, but when that sadness sticks around day after day, it could be depression. Let's talk about adolescent depression. Teens have a lot of pressures in their lives that can lead to depression. They're growing physically, and dealing with a new surge of hormones. They're fighting for more independence from their parents while trying to figure out their place in the world. Some kids are bullied at school or abused at home. Others are faced with major life changes, like their parents' divorce or the loss of a loved one. Kids who are very critical of themselves or who have low self-esteem are more likely to get depressed. Those with learning disorders, ADHD, or anxiety are also more prone to depression. So, how do you know that your teen is depressed? Look for signs like: irritability, fatigue, trouble eating, sleeping, or concentrating, teens who are depressed may start using drugs or alcohol, their attitude changes. . . once good kids may start misbehaving, missing curfews and acting up to their parents and teachers. Also, their grades may drop and they may spend more time alone in their room. If these symptoms go on for at least two weeks, have your teen seen by a doctor. When left untreated, depression can increase the risk for suicide. Start with a visit to your family doctor, a psychologist, or a psychiatrist. The doctor will tailor treatment to your teen. Often treatment includes medicine, usually a type of antidepressant called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, or SSRI. Examples are Prozac and Lexapro. Adolescents who are on these drugs need to be watched very carefully for side effects, like nervousness, irritability, and suicidal thoughts or actions. Most teens with depression feel better if they talk to someone. Meeting with a therapist can help them identify the negative thoughts that are causing their depression, and turn those thoughts around. Teens may meet with a therapist alone, with their family, or as part of a support group. Depression can affect every aspect of your teen's life, from school to relationships. Teens who are depressed are more likely to start using drugs or alcohol. Antidepressants and talk therapy can be very good at relieving depression. So if you suspect your teen is depressed, talk about it, and ask for help from a doctor or therapist you trust. Most important, call for help right away if you're afraid your teen might be thinking about suicide. Signs include giving away possessions, talking about hurting themselves, and pulling away from family and friends. Any suicidal thoughts need immediate medical attention.

  • Cystic fibrosis - Animation

    Cystic fibrosis

    Animation

  • Cystic fibrosis - Animation

    Parents can pass all kinds of different traits to their children, from blue eyes to blonde hair. Sometimes, parents can also pass the genes for certain diseases to their kids. Cystic fibrosis is one very serious inherited disease that makes it hard for children to breathe and digest food. Let's talk about cystic fibrosis. Genes are the coded instructions that tell our bodies how to operate. Usually, the code is correct and everything runs smoothly. But sometimes, the code is incorrect because of a defective gene or genes. In the case of cystic fibrosis, a faulty gene causes the body to produce an abnormally thick, sticky fluid called mucus. This mucus clogs the lungs, making it hard to breathe. It also gets stuck in the pancreas, making it harder for the body to break down and digest food. Millions of Americans carry the cystic fibrosis, or CF gene. Fortunately, most of them don't have cystic fibrosis. That's because you need to inherit one faulty gene from each parent to actually get the disease. Kids who are born with cystic fibrosis start showing signs very early. Newborns don't grow or gain weight as quickly as they should, and they don't make bowel movements because their bodies aren't digesting food properly. As these children get older, they may have symptoms like coughing and fatigue from the mucus in their lungs, and nausea and stomach pain from the mucus in their pancreas. They'll also get pneumonia and other lung infections more often than normal. So, you may now be asking, how do you know if your child has cystic fibrosis?Doctors diagnose cystic fibrosis using a blood test that looks for the CF gene. There is also a sweat test, which looks for saltier-than-normal sweat, another symptom of cystic fibrosis. Doctors may use other tests, such as a chest x-ray or upper GI series, to check for lung and bowel problems caused by CF. It's a good idea to get treated at a center that specializes in cystic fibrosis because they're up on all the latest therapies. For lung problems, treatments include inhaled medicines to open the airways, medicine to thin mucus and make it easier to cough up, and antibiotics to prevent lung infections. Some people may eventually need a lung transplant. For bowel problems, you'll need to eat a special diet that's higher in protein and calories to make up for the nutrients you're losing. You may also take vitamin supplements. The outlook for people with cystic fibrosis is better today than ever before. Thanks to new treatments, people with this disease can live well into adulthood. They can go to school, play sports, and get a job like everyone else. But because the symptoms of cystic fibrosis are so serious, it's very important to stay on top of treatment, and to call the doctor right away if symptoms get worse. Anyone with a family history of the disease may want to get screened for the CF gene before they decide to have children.

  • Osteopathic medicine

    Osteopathic medicine

    The scope of practice for osteopathic physicians includes diagnostic and therapeutic techniques (including musculoskeletal manipulations as well as prescriptions and other therapies) and preventive measures.

    Osteopathic medicine

    illustration

  • Physical activity - preventive medicine

    Physical activity - preventive medicine

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, thereby helping in weight loss and maintenance. It can increase basal metabolic rate, reduces appetite, and helps in the reduction of body fat.

    Physical activity - preventive medicine

    illustration

  • Breast cancer - Animation

    Breast cancer

    Animation

  • Breast cancer - Animation

    Of all the different types of cancers, breast cancer is one of the most talked about, and with good reason. One out of every eight women will develop breast cancer sometime in their life. That's why every woman should be thinking about how to protect herself from this disease. Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the breast. Usually, it begins in the tubes that transport milk from the breast to the nipple. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the breast or body, it's called invasive breast cancer. Some breast cancers are more aggressive, growing more quickly than others. Although women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer, men can also get the disease because they do have breast tissue. You're more likely to get breast cancer if you're over 50, you started your periods before age 12, or you have a close family member with the disease. Drinking more than a couple of glasses of alcohol a day and using hormone replacement therapy for several years also may increase your risk. The telltale sign of breast cancer is a lump in your breast or armpit. You may also notice a change in the shape, size, or texture of your breast, or have fluid coming from your nipple when you're not breastfeeding. If you notice any changes in your breasts, call your doctor. You'll probably need to have an imaging scan, such as a mammogram, MRI, or ultrasound. A piece of tissue may be removed from your breast, called a biopsy. With these tests, your doctor can tell whether you have breast cancer, and if so, determine whether or not it has spread. So, how do we treat breast cancer?That really depends on the type of cancer, and how quickly it's spreading. Your doctor may recommend that you have the cancer removed with surgery. Sometimes it's enough just to remove the lump. That's called a lumpectomy. In other cases, the doctor will need to remove the entire breast to get rid of all the cancer or prevent it from coming back. That's called a mastectomy. Other treatments for breast cancer include chemotherapy, medicines that kill cancer cells, and radiation therapy, which uses energy to destroy cancer. Women whose cancer is fueled by the hormone estrogen may receive hormone therapy to block the effects of estrogen on their cancer. Today's breast cancer treatments are better than ever. Many women who have breast cancer go on to live long, healthy lives. The outlook really depends on how fast the tumor is growing, and how far it has spread. That's why it's so important to report any changes in your breasts to your doctor as soon as you notice them. Women who are at an especially high risk for breast cancer because of their family history can talk to their doctor about taking medicine or even having surgery to reduce their risk.

  • Stroke - Animation

    Stroke

    Animation

  • Stroke - Animation

    When blood flow to an area of your brain stops, it's serious. It's called a stroke, and will often cause permanent, debilitating damage to your brain and change your life. Let's talk about strokes. If blood flow to your brain is stopped for longer than a few seconds, your brain can't get blood and oxygen. Brain cells die, causing permanent damage. There are two types, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic stroke happens when a blood clot forms in a very small artery, or when a blood clot breaks off from another artery and lodges in your brain. Hemorrhagic strokes can happen when a blood vessel in your brain becomes weak and bursts open. High blood pressure is the number one risk factor for strokes. People with atrial fibrillation (when your heart rhythm is fast and irregular), diabetes, a family history of stroke, and high cholesterol are most at risk. You are also at risk for stroke if you are older than age 55. Other risk factors include being overweight, drinking too much alcohol, eating too much salt, and smoking. Symptoms of a stroke usually develop suddenly, without warning. You may have a severe headache that starts suddenly, especially when you are lying flat, often when you awake from sleep. Your alertness may suddenly change. You may notice changes in your hearing, your sense of taste, and your sense of touch. You may feel clumsy or confused or have trouble swallowing or writing. So, how are strokes treated? A stroke is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment might save your life and reduce disability. Call your local emergency number -- or have someone call for you -- at the first sign of a stroke. Most of the time, someone having a stroke should be in the hospital within three hours after symptoms first begin. If a doctor suspects you've had a stroke, the doctor will check for problems with your vision, movement, feeling, reflexes, and your ability to understand and speak. You may have several tests to check for blocked or narrowed arteries. If the stroke is caused by a blood clot, you'll be given a clot-busting drug to dissolve the clot. Treatment depends on how bad your stroke is and what caused it. But you will probably need to stay in the hospital for a few days. Besides clot-busting drugs (called thrombolytics), you may need blood thinners, medicine to control high blood pressure, and surgery to unclog one of your carotid arteries-which carry blood to the brain. After your stroke, treatment will focus on helping you recover as much function as possible, and preventing future strokes. Most people need stroke rehabilitation therapy. If you can return home, you may need help making safety changes in your home and to help you with using the bathroom, cooking, dressing, and moving around your home. After a stroke, some people have trouble speaking or communicating with others, and a speech therapist might help. Depending on the severity of the stroke, you may have trouble with thinking and memory, problems with your muscles, joints, and nerves, trouble going to the bathroom, and difficulty swallowing and eating. Therapies and support for you and your family are available to help with each of these problems. Your treatment will also focus on preventing another stroke. You may need to be on several medications to help prevent this. And, eating healthy and controlling problems like diabetes and high blood pressure can be very important.

  • Adolescent depression - Animation

    Adolescent depression

    Animation

  • Adolescent depression - Animation

    Teenagers are typically moody. They can go from upbeat to moping in a matter of seconds. It's normal for teens to feel sad from time to time, but when that sadness sticks around day after day, it could be depression. Let's talk about adolescent depression. Teens have a lot of pressures in their lives that can lead to depression. They're growing physically, and dealing with a new surge of hormones. They're fighting for more independence from their parents while trying to figure out their place in the world. Some kids are bullied at school or abused at home. Others are faced with major life changes, like their parents' divorce or the loss of a loved one. Kids who are very critical of themselves or who have low self-esteem are more likely to get depressed. Those with learning disorders, ADHD, or anxiety are also more prone to depression. So, how do you know that your teen is depressed? Look for signs like: irritability, fatigue, trouble eating, sleeping, or concentrating, teens who are depressed may start using drugs or alcohol, their attitude changes. . . once good kids may start misbehaving, missing curfews and acting up to their parents and teachers. Also, their grades may drop and they may spend more time alone in their room. If these symptoms go on for at least two weeks, have your teen seen by a doctor. When left untreated, depression can increase the risk for suicide. Start with a visit to your family doctor, a psychologist, or a psychiatrist. The doctor will tailor treatment to your teen. Often treatment includes medicine, usually a type of antidepressant called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, or SSRI. Examples are Prozac and Lexapro. Adolescents who are on these drugs need to be watched very carefully for side effects, like nervousness, irritability, and suicidal thoughts or actions. Most teens with depression feel better if they talk to someone. Meeting with a therapist can help them identify the negative thoughts that are causing their depression, and turn those thoughts around. Teens may meet with a therapist alone, with their family, or as part of a support group. Depression can affect every aspect of your teen's life, from school to relationships. Teens who are depressed are more likely to start using drugs or alcohol. Antidepressants and talk therapy can be very good at relieving depression. So if you suspect your teen is depressed, talk about it, and ask for help from a doctor or therapist you trust. Most important, call for help right away if you're afraid your teen might be thinking about suicide. Signs include giving away possessions, talking about hurting themselves, and pulling away from family and friends. Any suicidal thoughts need immediate medical attention.

  • Cystic fibrosis - Animation

    Cystic fibrosis

    Animation

  • Cystic fibrosis - Animation

    Parents can pass all kinds of different traits to their children, from blue eyes to blonde hair. Sometimes, parents can also pass the genes for certain diseases to their kids. Cystic fibrosis is one very serious inherited disease that makes it hard for children to breathe and digest food. Let's talk about cystic fibrosis. Genes are the coded instructions that tell our bodies how to operate. Usually, the code is correct and everything runs smoothly. But sometimes, the code is incorrect because of a defective gene or genes. In the case of cystic fibrosis, a faulty gene causes the body to produce an abnormally thick, sticky fluid called mucus. This mucus clogs the lungs, making it hard to breathe. It also gets stuck in the pancreas, making it harder for the body to break down and digest food. Millions of Americans carry the cystic fibrosis, or CF gene. Fortunately, most of them don't have cystic fibrosis. That's because you need to inherit one faulty gene from each parent to actually get the disease. Kids who are born with cystic fibrosis start showing signs very early. Newborns don't grow or gain weight as quickly as they should, and they don't make bowel movements because their bodies aren't digesting food properly. As these children get older, they may have symptoms like coughing and fatigue from the mucus in their lungs, and nausea and stomach pain from the mucus in their pancreas. They'll also get pneumonia and other lung infections more often than normal. So, you may now be asking, how do you know if your child has cystic fibrosis?Doctors diagnose cystic fibrosis using a blood test that looks for the CF gene. There is also a sweat test, which looks for saltier-than-normal sweat, another symptom of cystic fibrosis. Doctors may use other tests, such as a chest x-ray or upper GI series, to check for lung and bowel problems caused by CF. It's a good idea to get treated at a center that specializes in cystic fibrosis because they're up on all the latest therapies. For lung problems, treatments include inhaled medicines to open the airways, medicine to thin mucus and make it easier to cough up, and antibiotics to prevent lung infections. Some people may eventually need a lung transplant. For bowel problems, you'll need to eat a special diet that's higher in protein and calories to make up for the nutrients you're losing. You may also take vitamin supplements. The outlook for people with cystic fibrosis is better today than ever before. Thanks to new treatments, people with this disease can live well into adulthood. They can go to school, play sports, and get a job like everyone else. But because the symptoms of cystic fibrosis are so serious, it's very important to stay on top of treatment, and to call the doctor right away if symptoms get worse. Anyone with a family history of the disease may want to get screened for the CF gene before they decide to have children.

  • Osteopathic medicine

    Osteopathic medicine

    The scope of practice for osteopathic physicians includes diagnostic and therapeutic techniques (including musculoskeletal manipulations as well as prescriptions and other therapies) and preventive measures.

    Osteopathic medicine

    illustration

  • Physical activity - preventive medicine

    Physical activity - preventive medicine

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, thereby helping in weight loss and maintenance. It can increase basal metabolic rate, reduces appetite, and helps in the reduction of body fat.

    Physical activity - preventive medicine

    illustration

Review Date: 1/10/2019

Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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