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Staph infections in the hospital

"Staph" (pronounced staff) is short for Staphylococcus. Staph is a germ (bacteria) that can cause infections in any part of the body, but most are skin infections. Staph can infect openings in the skin, like scratches, pimples, or skin cysts. Anyone can get a staph infection.

Hospital patients can get staph infections of the skin:

Once the staph germ enters the body, it can spread to bones, joints, and the blood. It can also spread to any organ, such as the lungs, heart, or brain.

Staph can also spread from one person to another.

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Proper hand washing

Staph Infections in the Hospital

Staph germs are mostly spread by skin-to-skin contact (touching). A doctor, nurse, other health care provider, or even visitors may have staph germs on their body and then spread them to a patient. This can happen when:

Also, a patient may have a staph infection before coming to the hospital. This can occur without the person even being aware of it.

In a few cases, people can get staph infections by touching clothing, sinks, or other objects that have staph germs on them.

One type of staph germ, called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is harder to treat. This is because MRSA is not killed by certain antibiotics used to treat ordinary staph germs.

What are Risk Factors for Staph Infection?

Many healthy people normally have staph on their skin. Most of the time, it does not cause an infection or symptoms. This is called being colonized with staph. These people are known as carriers. They can spread staph to others. Some people colonized with staph develop an actual staph infection that makes them sick.

Common risk factors for developing a serious staph infection are:

How Do You Know If You Have a Staph Infection?

Any time an area of your skin appears red, swollen, or crusty, a staph infection may be the cause. The only way to know for sure is to have a test called a skin culture. To do the culture, your provider may use a cotton swab to collect a sample from an open wound, skin rash, or skin sore. A sample may also be taken from a wound, blood, or sputum (phlegm). The sample is sent to the lab for testing.

Preventing Staph Infection in Hospitals

The best way to prevent the spread of staph for everyone is to keep their hands clean. It is important to wash your hands thoroughly. To do this:

Alcohol-based gels may also be used if your hands are not visibly dirty.

Ask visitors to wash their hands before they come into your hospital room. They should also wash their hands when they leave your room.

Health care workers and other hospital staff can prevent staph infection by:

Many hospitals encourage patients to ask their providers if they have washed their hands. As a patient, you have the right to ask.

References

Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 266.

Centers for Disease Control and Infection website. Healthcare settings: preventing the spread of MRSA. www.cdc.gov/mrsa/healthcare/index.html. Updated February 28, 2019. Accessed October 22, 2019.

Que YA, Moreillon P. Staphylococcus aureus (including Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 194.

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Review Date: 9/29/2019  

Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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