Overweight in children - causes and risks
When children eat more than they need, their bodies store the extra calories in fat cells to use for energy later. If their bodies do not need this stored energy, they develop more fat cells and may become obese.
No single factor or behavior causes obesity. Obesity is caused by many things, including a person's habits, lifestyle, and environment. Genes and some medical problems also increase a person's chances of becoming obese.
Infants and young children are very good at listening to their bodies' signals of hunger and fullness. They will stop eating as soon as their bodies tell them they have had enough. But sometimes a well-meaning parent tells them they have to finish everything on their plate. This forces them to ignore their fullness and eat everything that is served to them.
The way we eat when we are children may strongly affect our eating behaviors as adults. When we repeat these behaviors over many years, they become habits. They affect what we eat, when we eat, and how much we eat.
Other learned behaviors include using food to:
These learned habits lead to eating no matter if we are hungry or full. Many people have a very hard time breaking these habits.
The family, friends, schools, and community resources in a child's environment reinforce lifestyle habits regarding diet and activity.
Children are surrounded by many things that make it easy to overeat and harder to be active:
If a parent is overweight and has poor diet and exercise habits, the child is likely to adopt the same habits.
Screen time, such as watching television, gaming, texting, and playing on the computer are activities that require very little energy. They take up a lot of time and replace physical activity. And, when children watch TV, they often crave the unhealthy high-calorie snacks they see on commercials.
Schools have an important role in teaching students about healthy food choices and exercise. Many schools now limit unhealthy foods in lunches and vending machines. They are also encouraging students to exercise more.
Having a safe community that supports outdoor activities at parks, or indoor activities at community centers, is important for encouraging physical activity. If a parent feels it is not safe to allow their child to play outside, the child is more likely to do sedentary activities inside.
The term eating disorders refers to a group of medical problems that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. Examples of eating disorders are:
Obesity and eating disorders often occur at the same time in teens and young adults who may be unhappy with their body image.
Some children are at greater risk for obesity because of genetic factors. They have inherited genes from their parents that make their bodies gain weight easily. This would have been a very good trait hundreds of years ago, when food was hard to find and people were very active. Today, though, this can work against people who have these genes.
Genetics is not the only cause of obesity. To become obese, children must also eat more calories than they need for growth and energy.
Obesity may be linked to rare genetic conditions, such as Prader Willi syndrome.
Certain medical conditions can increase a child's appetite. These include hormone disorders or low thyroid function, and certain medicines, such as steroids or anti-seizure medicines. Over time, any of these can increase the risk for obesity.
Gahagan S. Overweight and obesity. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 47.
O'Connor EA, Evans CV, Burda BU, Walsh ES, Eder M, Lozano P. Screening for obesity and intervention for weight management in children and adolescents: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2017;317(23):2427-2444. PMID: 28632873 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28632873.
United States Department of Agriculture; Food and Nutrition Service. School meals: tools for schools: Focusing on smart snacks. www.fns.usda.gov/healthierschoolday/tools-schools-focusing-smart-snacks. Updated October 18, 2018. Accessed October 22, 2018.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 8/5/2018
Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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