Biopsy - rectum; Rectal bleeding - biopsy; Rectal polyps - biopsy; Amyloidosis - rectal biopsy; Crohn disease - rectal biopsy; Colorectal cancer - biopsy; Hirschsprung disease - rectal biopsy
A rectal biopsy is a procedure to remove a small piece of tissue from the rectum for examination.
A digital rectal exam is done first. Then, a lubricated instrument (anoscope or proctoscope) is placed into the rectum. You will feel some discomfort when this is done.
A biopsy can be taken through any of these instruments.
You may get a laxative, enema, or other preparation before the biopsy so that you can completely empty your bowel. This will allow the health care provider a clear view of the rectum.
There will be some discomfort during the procedure. You may feel like you need to have a bowel movement. You may feel cramping or mild discomfort as the instrument is placed into the rectal area. You may feel a pinch when a biopsy is taken.
A rectal biopsy is used to determine the cause of abnormal growths found during anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or other tests. It can also be used to confirm the diagnosis of amyloidosis (rare disorder in which abnormal proteins build up in tissues and organs).
The anus and rectum appear normal in size, color, and shape. There should be no evidence of:
No problems are seen when the biopsy tissue is examined under a microscope.
This test is a common way to determine the specific causes of abnormal conditions of the rectum, such as:
Risks of a rectal biopsy include bleeding.
Downs JM, Kulow B. Anal diseases. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 129.
Gibson JA, Odze RD. Tissue sampling, specimen handling, and laboratory processing. In: Chandrasekhara V, Elmunzer J, Khashab MA, Muthusamy VR, eds. Clinical Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 5.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 8/22/2022
Reviewed By: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, General Surgery Practice Specializing in Breast Cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
Health Content Provider
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2023 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.