PRL; Galactorrhea - prolactin test; Infertility - prolactin test; Amenorrhea - prolactin test; Breast leakage - prolactin test; Prolactinoma - prolactin test; Pituitary tumor - prolactin test
Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood.
A fasting blood sample is needed.
No special preparation is necessary.
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.
Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a small gland at the base of the brain. It regulates the body's balance of many hormones.
Prolactin stimulates breast development and milk production in women. There is no known normal function for prolactin in men.
Prolactin is usually measured when checking for pituitary tumors and the cause of:
The normal values for prolactin are:
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
People with the following conditions may have high prolactin levels:
Certain medicines can also raise prolactin level, including:
Marijuana products can also raise prolactin level.
If your prolactin level is high, the test may be repeated in the early morning after an 8-hour fast.
The following can temporarily increase prolactin levels:
Interpretation of an abnormally high prolactin blood test is complicated. In most case, your provider will need to refer you to an endocrinologist, a doctor who specializes in hormone problems.
There is little risk in having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Prolactin (human prolactin, HPRL) - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:910-911.
Guber HA, Oprea M, Rusell YX. Evaluation of endocrine function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 25.
Kaiser U, Ho K. Pituitary physiology and diagnostic evaluation. In: Melmed S, Auchus RJ, Goldfine AB, Koenig RJ, Rosen CJ, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 8.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 8/12/2022
Reviewed By: Sandeep K. Dhaliwal, MD, board-certified in Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Springfield, VA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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