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Complement component 3 (C3)

C3

Complement C3 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein.

This protein is part of the complement system. The complement system is a group of nearly 60 proteins that are in blood plasma or on the surface of some cells. The proteins work with your immune system and play a role to protect the body from infections, and to remove dead cells and foreign material. Rarely, people may inherit deficiency of some complement proteins. These people are prone to certain infections or autoimmune disorders.

There are nine major complement proteins. They are labeled C1 through C9. This article describes the test that measures C3.

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How the Test is Performed

Blood is drawn from a vein. Most often, a vein from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand is used.

The procedure is as follows:

In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube called a pipette, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.

How to Prepare for the Test

There is no special preparation needed.

How the Test will Feel

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others may feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.

Why the Test is Performed

C3 and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components.

A complement test may be used to monitor people with an autoimmune disorder. It is done to see if treatment for their condition is working. When the complement system is turned on during inflammation, levels of complement proteins may go down. For example, people with active lupus erythematosus may have lower-than-normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4.

The test may also be done for the following conditions:

Normal Results

The normal range is 88 to 201 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) (0.88 to 2.01 g/L).

Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.

What Abnormal Results Mean

Increased complement activity may be seen in:

Decreased complement activity may be seen in:

Risks

Risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:

Considerations

The complement cascade is a series of reactions that take place in the blood. The cascade activates the complement proteins. The result is an attack unit that creates holes in the membrane of bacteria, killing them. C3 attaches to bacteria and kills them directly.

Related Information

Complement
C1 esterase inhibitor
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Complement component 4
Septicemia
Shock
Malaria
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Ulcerative colitis
Hereditary angioedema
Cirrhosis
Glomerulonephritis
Hepatitis
Lupus nephritis
Kidney transplant

References

Atkinson JP. Complement system in disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 44.

Bean KV, Massey HD, Gupta G. Mediators of inflammation: complement. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 48.

Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. C3 complement (beta-1c-globulin) - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:267-268.

Sullivan KE, Grumach AS. The complement system. In: Burks AW, Holgate ST, O'Hehir RE, Broide DH, et al. eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 8.

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Review Date: 1/31/2021  

Reviewed By: Diane M. Horowitz, MD, Rheumatology and Internal Medicine, Northwell Health, Great Neck, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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