Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement; Glaucoma test; Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT)
Tonometry is a test to measure the pressure inside your eyes. The test is used to screen for glaucoma. It is also used to measure how well glaucoma treatment is working.
There are three main methods of measuring eye pressure.
The most accurate method measures the force needed to flatten an area of the cornea.
A second method uses a handheld device shaped like a pen. You are given numbing eye drops to prevent any discomfort. The device touches the surface of the cornea and instantly records eye pressure.
The last method is the noncontact method (air puff). In this method, your chin rests on a device similar to a slit lamp.
Remove contact lenses before the exam. The dye can permanently stain contact lenses.
Tell your provider if you have a history of corneal ulcers or eye infections, or a history of glaucoma in your family. Always tell your provider what medicines you are taking.
If numbing eye drops were used, you should not have any pain. In the noncontact method, you may feel mild pressure for a brief moment on your eye from the air puff.
Tonometry is a test to measure the pressure inside your eyes. The test is used to screen for glaucoma and to measure how well glaucoma treatment is working.
People over age 40 years, particularly African Americans, have the highest risk for developing glaucoma. Regular eye exams can help detect glaucoma early. If it is detected early, glaucoma can be treated before too much damage is done.
The test may also be done before and after eye surgery.
A normal result means your eye pressure is within the normal range. The normal eye pressure range is 10 to 21 mm Hg.
The thickness of your cornea can affect measurements. Normal eyes with thick corneas have higher readings, and normal eyes with thin corneas have lower readings. A thin cornea with a high reading may be very abnormal (the actual eye pressure will be higher than shown on the tonometer).
A corneal thickness measurement (pachymetry) is needed to get a correct pressure measurement.
Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
Abnormal results may be due to:
If the applanation method is used, there is a small chance the cornea may be scratched (corneal abrasion). The scratch will normally heal within a few days.
Bader J, Havens SJ. Tonometry. 2020 Aug 11. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. PMID: 29630277 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29630277/.
Knoop KJ, Dennis WR. Ophthalmologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, Custalow CB, Thomsen TW, eds. Roberts and Hedges' Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine and Acute Care. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 62.
Lee D, Yung ES, Katz LJ. Clinical examination of glaucoma. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 10.4.
Salmon JF. Glaucoma. In: Salmon JF, ed. Kanski's Clinical Ophthalmology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 11.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 8/18/2020
Reviewed By: Franklin W. Lusby, MD, ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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