The pyruvate kinase test measures the level of the enzyme pyruvate kinase in the blood.
Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme found in red blood cells. It helps change sugar in the blood (glucose) to energy when oxygen levels are low.
A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood cells are removed from the blood sample because they can alter test results. The level of pyruvate kinase is then measured.
No special preparation is necessary.
If your child is having this test, it may help to explain how the test will feel and even demonstrate on a doll. Explain the reason for the test. Knowing the "how and why" may reduce your child's anxiety.
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.
This test is done to detect an abnormally low level of pyruvate kinase. Without enough of this enzyme, red blood cells break down faster than normal. This is called hemolytic anemia.
This test helps diagnose pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD).
Results vary depending on the testing method used. In general, a normal value is 179 ± 16 units per 100 mL of red blood cells.
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
A low level of pyruvate kinase confirms PKD.
There is little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:
Elghetany MT, Schexneider KI, Banki K. Erythrocytic disorders. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 32.
Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias: red cell membrane and metabolic defects. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 152.
Papachristodoulou D. Energy metabolism. In: Naish J, Syndercombe Court D, eds. Medical Sciences. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 3.
van Solinge WW, van Wijk R. Enzymes of the red blood cell. In: Rifai N, ed. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 30.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 2/6/2020
Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
Health Content Provider
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2022 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.