Unintentional weight gain is when you gain weight without trying to do so and you are not eating or drinking more.
Gaining weight when you are not trying to do so can have many causes.
Metabolism slows down as you age. This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise.
Drugs that can cause weight gain include:
Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to:
Bloating, or swelling due to a buildup of fluid in the tissues can cause weight gain. This may be due to menstruation, heart or kidney failure, preeclampsia, or medicines you take. A rapid weight gain may be a sign of dangerous fluid retention.
If you quit smoking, you might gain weight. Most people who quit smoking gain 4 to 10 pounds (2 to 4.5 kilograms) in the first 6 months after quitting. Some gain as much as 25 to 30 pounds (11 to 14 kilograms). This weight gain is not simply due to eating more.
A healthy diet and exercise program can help you manage your weight. Talk to your health care provider or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set realistic weight goals.
Do not stop any medicines that may be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.
Contact your provider if you have the following symptoms with the weight gain:
Your provider will perform a physical exam and calculate your body mass index (BMI). The provider may also ask questions, such as:
You may have the following tests:
Your provider may suggest a diet and exercise program or refer you to a dietitian. Weight gain caused by stress or feeling sad may require counseling. If weight gain is caused by a physical illness, treatment (if there is any) for the underlying cause will be prescribed.
Boham E, Stone PM, DeBusk R. Obesity. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 36.
Kumar RB, Aronne LJ. Obesity. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 7.
Maratos-Flier E. Obesity. In: Melmed S, Auchus RJ, Goldfine AB, Koenig RJ, Rosen CJ, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 40.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 7/19/2021
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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