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Kyphosis

Scheuermann disease; Roundback; Hunchback; Postural kyphosis; Neck pain - kyphosis

Kyphosis is a curving of the spine that causes a bowing or rounding of the back. This leads to a hunchback or slouching posture.

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Skeletal spine
Kyphosis

Causes

Kyphosis can occur at any age, although it is rare at birth.

A type of kyphosis that occurs in young teens is known as Scheuermann disease. It is caused by the wedging together of several bones of the spine (vertebrae) in a row. The cause of this condition is unknown. Kyphosis can also occur in young teens who have cerebral palsy.

In adults, kyphosis can be caused by:

Other causes of kyphosis include:

Symptoms

Pain in the middle or lower back is the most common symptom. Other symptoms may include any of the following:

Exams and Tests

Physical examination by a health care provider confirms the abnormal curve of the spine. The provider will also look for any nervous system (neurological) changes. These include weakness, paralysis, or changes in sensation below the curve. Your provider will also check for differences in your reflexes.

Tests that may be ordered include:

Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause of the disorder:

Treatment for other types of kyphosis depends on the cause. Surgery is needed if nervous system symptoms or constant pain develop.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Young teens with Scheuermann disease tend to do well, even if they need surgery. The disease stops once they stop growing. If the kyphosis is due to degenerative joint disease or multiple compression fractures, surgery is needed to correct the defect and improve pain.

Possible Complications

Untreated kyphosis can cause any of the following:

Prevention

Treating and preventing osteoporosis can prevent many cases of kyphosis in older adults. Early diagnosis and bracing for Scheuermann disease can reduce the need for surgery, but there is no way to prevent the disease.

Related Information

Osteoporosis
Arthritis
Spondylolisthesis
Pulmonary tuberculosis
Neurofibromatosis-1
Muscular dystrophy
Myelomeningocele
Endocrine glands
Paget disease of the bone
Polio

References

Deeney VF, Arnold J. Orthopedics. Zitelli BJ, McIntire SC, Nowalk AJ, eds. Zitelli and Davis' Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 22.

Magee DJ. Thoracic (dorsal) spine. In: Magee DJ, ed. Orthopedic Physical Assessment. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 8.

Warner WC, Sawyer JR. Scoliosis and kyphosis. In: Azar FM, Beaty JH, Canale ST, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 44.

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Review Date: 7/25/2020  

Reviewed By: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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