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Female pattern baldness

Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women

Female pattern baldness is the most common type of hair loss in women.

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Female-pattern baldness

Causes

Each strand of hair sits in a tiny hole in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, resulting in shorter and finer hair. Eventually, the follicle does not grow new hair. The follicles remain alive, which suggests that it is still possible to grow new hair.

The reason for female pattern baldness is not well understood, but may be related to:

Symptoms

Hair thinning is different from that of male pattern baldness. In female pattern baldness:

Itching or skin sores on the scalp are generally not seen.

Exams and Tests

Female pattern baldness is usually diagnosed based on:

The health care provider will examine you for other signs of too much male hormone (androgen), such as:

A skin biopsy of the scalp or blood tests may be used to diagnose skin disorders that cause hair loss.

Looking at the hair with a dermoscope or under a microscope may be done to check for problems with the structure of the hair shaft itself.

Treatment

Untreated, hair loss in female pattern baldness is permanent. In most cases, hair loss is mild to moderate. You do not need treatment if you are comfortable with your appearance.

MEDICINES

The only medicine approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat female pattern baldness is minoxidil:

If minoxidil does not work, your provider may recommend other medicines, such as spironolactone, cimetidine, birth control pills, ketoconazole, among others. Your provider can tell you more about these if needed.

HAIR TRANSPLANT

This procedure can be effective in females:

During hair transplant, tiny plugs of hair are removed from areas where hair is thicker, and placed (transplanted) in areas that are balding. Minor scarring may occur where hair is removed. There is a slight risk for skin infection. You will likely need many transplants, which can be expensive. However, the results are often excellent and permanent.

OTHER SOLUTIONS

Hair weaving, hairpieces, or a change in hairstyle can help hide hair loss and improve your appearance. This is most often the least expensive and safest way to deal with female pattern baldness.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Female pattern baldness is usually not a sign of an underlying medical disorder.

Hair loss may affect self-esteem and cause anxiety.

Hair loss is usually permanent.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if you have hair loss and it continues, especially if you also have itching, skin irritation, or other symptoms. There might be a treatable medical cause for the hair loss.

Prevention

There is no known prevention for female pattern baldness.

Related Information

Hair loss
Endocrine glands
Menopause
Male pattern baldness
Stress and your health

References

James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM. Diseases of the skin appendages. In: James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 33.

Sperling LC, Sinclair RD, El Shabrawi-Caelen L. Alopecias. In: Bolognia JL, Schaffer JV, Cerroni L, eds. Dermatology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 69.

Unger WP, Unger RH. Androgenetic alopecia. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Jones JB, Coulson IH, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 12.

Zug KA. Hair and nail diseases. In: Habif TP, Dinulos JGH, Chapman MS, Zug KA, eds. Skin Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 20.

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Review Date: 1/21/2020  

Reviewed By: Michael Lehrer, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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