Upper respiratory infection - viral; Cold
The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, headache, or other symptoms.
It is called the common cold for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will probably have more colds than any other type of illness.
Colds are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds from their children.
Children can get many colds every year. They usually get them from other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares.
Colds can occur at any time of the year, but they are most common in the winter or rainy seasons.
A cold virus spreads through tiny, air droplets that are released when the sick person sneezes, coughs, or blows their nose.
You can catch a cold if:
People are most contagious for the first 2 to 3 days of a cold. A cold is most often not contagious after the first week.
Cold symptoms usually start about 2 or 3 days after you came in contact with the virus, although it could take up to a week. Symptoms mostly affect the nose.
The most common cold symptoms are:
Adults and older children with colds generally have a low fever or no fever. Young children often run a fever around 100°F to 102°F (37.7°C to 38.8°C).
Depending on which virus caused your cold, you may also have:
Most colds go away in a few days. Some things you can do to take care of yourself with a cold include:
The fluid from your runny nose will become thicker over time. It may turn yellow or green within a few days. This is normal, and not a reason for antibiotics.
Most cold symptoms go away within a week in most cases. If you still feel sick after 7 days, consult with your provider. Your provider may check you for a sinus infection, allergies, or other medical problem.
Colds are the most common trigger of wheezing in children with asthma.
A cold may also lead to:
Try treating your cold at home first. Contact your provider if:
To lower your chances of getting sick:
The immune system helps your body fight off infection. Here are ways to support the immune system:
Barrett B. Acute respiratory infection cold and flu. In: Rakel D, Minichiello VJ, eds. Integrative Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 19.
Barrett B, Turner RB. The common cold. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 337.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Rhinoviruses. www.cdc.gov/ncird/rhinoviruses-common-cold.html. Updated March 8, 2023. Accessed July 11, 2023.
Lopez SMC, Williams JV. The common cold. In: Kliegman RM, St Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier;2020:chap 407.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 2/2/2023
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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