Toxic multinodular goiter; Plummer disease; Thyrotoxicosis - nodular goiter; Overactive thyroid - toxic nodular goiter; Hyperthyroidism - toxic nodular goiter; Toxic multinodular goiter; MNG
Toxic nodular goiter involves an enlarged thyroid gland. The gland contains areas that have increased in size and formed nodules. One or more of these nodules produce too much thyroid hormone.
Toxic nodular goiter starts from an existing simple goiter. It occurs most often in older adults. Risk factors include being female and over 55 years old. This disorder is rare in children. Most people who develop it have had a goiter with nodules for many years. Sometimes the thyroid gland is only slightly enlarged, and the goiter was not already diagnosed.
Sometimes, people with toxic multinodular goiter will develop high thyroid levels for the first time. This mostly occurs after they take in a large amount of iodine through a vein (intravenously) or by mouth. The iodine may be used as contrast for a CT scan or heart catheterization. Taking medicines that contain iodine, such as amiodarone, may also lead to the disorder. Moving from a country with iodine deficiency to a country with a lot of iodine in the diet can also turn a simple goiter into a toxic goiter.
Symptoms may include any of the following:
Older adults may have symptoms that are less specific. These may include:
Toxic nodular goiter does not cause the bulging eyes that can occur with Graves disease. Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).
Other tests that may be done include:
Beta-blockers can control some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism until thyroid hormone levels in the body are under control.
Certain medicines can block or change how the thyroid gland uses iodine. These may be used to control the overactive thyroid gland in any of the following cases:
Radioiodine therapy may be used. Radioactive iodine is given by mouth. It then concentrates in the overactive thyroid tissue and causes damage. In rare cases, thyroid replacement is needed afterward.
Surgery to remove the thyroid may be done when:
Toxic nodular goiter is mainly a disease of older adults. So, other chronic health problems may affect the outcome of this condition. An older adult may be less able to tolerate the effect of the disease on the heart. However, the condition is often treatable with medicines.
Thyroid crisis or storm is an acute worsening of hyperthyroidism symptoms. It may occur with infection or stress. Thyroid crisis may cause:
People with this condition need to go to the hospital right away.
Complications of having a very large goiter may include difficulty breathing or swallowing. These complications are due to pressure on the airway passage (trachea) or esophagus, which lies behind the thyroid.
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of this disorder listed above. Follow the provider's instructions for follow-up visits.
To prevent toxic nodular goiter, treat hyperthyroidism and simple goiter as your provider suggests.
Hegedus L, Paschke R, Krohn K, Bonnema SJ. Multinodular goiter. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90.
Jonklaas J, Cooper DS. Thyroid. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 213.
Kopp P. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 85.
Ritter JM, Flower R, Henderson G, Loke YK, MacEwan D, Rang HP. The thyroid. In: Ritter JM, Flower R, Henderson G, Loke YK, MacEwan D, Rang HP, eds. Rang and Dale's Pharmacology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 35.
Smith PW, Hanks LR, Salomone LJ, Hanks JB. Thyroid. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 36.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 1/26/2020
Reviewed By: Brent Wisse, MD, board certified in Metabolism/Endocrinology, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2022 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.