Primary sclerosing cholangitis; PSC
Sclerosing cholangitis refers to swelling (inflammation), scarring, and destruction of the bile ducts inside and outside of the liver.
The cause of this condition is unknown in most cases.
The disease may be seen in people who have:
Genetic factors may also be responsible. Sclerosing cholangitis occurs more often in men than women. This disorder is rare in children.
Sclerosing cholangitis may also be caused by:
The first symptoms are usually:
However, some people have no symptoms.
Other symptoms may include:
Even though some people do not have symptoms, blood tests shows that they have abnormal liver function. Your health care provider will look for:
Tests that show cholangitis include:
Medicines that may be used include:
These surgical procedures may be done:
How well people do varies. The disease tends to get worse over time. Sometimes people develop:
Some people develop infections of the bile ducts that keep returning.
People with this condition have a high risk for developing cancer of the bile ducts (cholangiocarcinoma). They should be checked regularly with a liver imaging test and blood tests. People who also have IBD may have an increased risk for developing cancer of the colon or rectum and should have periodic colonoscopy.
Complications may include:
Ahrendt GM, Ahrendt SA. Gallbladder and biliary tree: Management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. In: Cameron AM, Cameron JL, eds. Current Surgical Therapy. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:457-538.
Bowlus C, Assis DN, Goldberg D. Primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis. In: Sanyal AJ, Boyer TD, Lindor KD, Terrault NA, eds. Zakim and Boyer's Hepatology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 43.
Levy C, Bowlus CL. Primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 68.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 5/2/2023
Reviewed By: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Emeritus Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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