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Abscess - abdomen or pelvis

Abscess - intra-abdominal; Pelvic abscess

An abdominal abscess is a pocket of infected fluid and pus located inside the belly (abdominal cavity). This type of abscess can be located near or inside the liver, pancreas, kidneys or other organs. There can be one or more abscesses.

Images

Intra-abdominal abscess - CT scan
Meckel diverticulum

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Causes

You can get abdominal abscesses because you have:

You are more at risk for an abdominal abscess if you have:

Germs may pass through your blood to an organ in your belly. Sometimes, no reason can be found for an abscess.

Symptoms

Pain or discomfort in the belly that does not go away is a common symptom. This pain:

Depending on where the abscess is located, you may have:

Other symptoms of an abdominal abscess may be a lot like symptoms of having the flu. You may have:

Exams and Tests

Your symptoms can be a sign of many different problems. Your health care provider will do some tests to help determine if you have an abdominal abscess. These may include the following tests:

Other tests that should show abdominal abscesses include:

Treatment

Your health care team will try to identify and treat the cause of the abscess. Your abscess will be treated with antibiotics, drainage of the pus, or both. At first, you will likely receive care in the hospital.

ANTIBIOTICS

You will be given antibiotics to treat the abscess. You will take them for up to 4 to 6 weeks.

DRAINAGE

Your abscess needs to be drained of pus. Your provider and you will decide the best way to do this.

Using a needle and drain -- Your provider puts a needle through the skin and into the abscess. Usually, this is done with the help of x-rays to make sure the needle is inserted into the abscess.

Your provider will give you medicine to make you sleepy, and medicine to numb the skin before the needle is inserted into the skin.

A sample of the abscess will be sent to the lab. This helps your provider choose which antibiotics to use.

A drain is left in the abscess so that pus can drain out. Usually, the drain is kept in for days or weeks until the abscess gets better.

Having surgery -- Sometimes, a surgeon does surgery to clean out the abscess. You will be put under general anesthesia so that you are asleep for the surgery. Surgery may be needed if:

The surgeon will make a cut into the belly area. Laparotomy involves a larger cut. Laparoscopy uses a very small cut and a laparoscope (a tiny video camera). The surgeon will then:

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well you respond to treatment depends on the cause of the abscess and how bad the infection is. It also depends on your overall health. Usually, antibiotics and drainage takes care of abdominal abscesses that have not spread.

You may need more than one operation. Sometimes, an abscess will come back.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if you have:

Related Information

Abscess
Diverticulitis

References

de Prisco G, Celinski S, Spak CW. Abdominal abscesses and gastrointestinal fistulas. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 29.

Landmann A, Bonds M, Postier R. Acute abdomen. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 21st ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2022:chap 46.

Shapiro NI, Jones AE. Sepsis syndromes. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 130.

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Review Date: 10/26/2020  

Reviewed By: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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