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Cryptosporidium enteritis

Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidium enteritis is an infection of the small intestine that causes diarrhea. The parasite cryptosporidium causes this infection.

Images

Cryptosporidium - organism
Digestive system organs

Causes

Cryptosporidium has recently been recognized as a cause of diarrhea worldwide in all age groups. It has a greater effect on people with a weakened immune system, including:

In these groups, this infection is not just bothersome, but can lead to severe and life-threatening loss of muscle and body mass (wasting) and malnutrition.

The major risk factor is drinking water that is contaminated with feces (stool). People at higher risk include:

Outbreaks have been linked to:

Some outbreaks have been very large.

Symptoms

Symptoms of infection include:

Exams and Tests

These tests may be done:

Treatment

There are several treatments for cryptosporidium enteritis.

Medicines such as nitazoxanide have been used in children and adults. Other medicines that are sometimes used include:

These medicines often help only for a little while. It is common for the infection to return.

The best approach is to improve immune function in people who have a weakened immune system. In people with HIV/AIDS, this can be done by using highly active antiviral therapy. Using this type of treatment can lead to a complete remission of cryptosporidium enteritis.

Outlook (Prognosis)

In healthy people, the infection will clear up, but it can last up to a month. In people with a weakened immune system, long-term diarrhea may cause weight loss and malnutrition.

Possible Complications

These complications can occur:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Contact your health care provider if you develop watery diarrhea that does not go away within a few days, especially if you have a weakened immune system.

Prevention

Proper sanitation and hygiene, including handwashing, are important measures for preventing this illness.

Certain water filters can also reduce risk by filtering out the cryptosporidium eggs. However, the pores of the filter must be smaller than 1 micron to be effective. If you have a weakened immune system, ask your provider if you need to boil your water.

Related Information

Diarrhea
HIV/AIDS
Malabsorption

References

Huston CD. Intestinal protozoa. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 113.

Warren CA, Lima AAM. Cryptosporidiosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 329.

White AC. Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium species). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 282.

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Review Date: 3/4/2020  

Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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