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Meningococcal meningitis

Meningococcal meningitis; Gram negative - meningococcus

Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.

Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. The meningococcal bacteria are one kind of bacteria that cause meningitis.

Images

Meningococcal lesions on the back
Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
CSF cell count
Brudzinski's sign of meningitis
Kernig's sign of meningitis

Causes

Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis (also known as meningococcus).

Meningococcus is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children and teens. It is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults.

The infection occurs more often in winter or spring. It may cause local epidemics at boarding schools, college dormitories, or military bases.

Risk factors include recent exposure to someone with meningococcal meningitis, complement deficiency, use of eculizumab, and exposure to cigarette smoking.

Symptoms

Symptoms usually come on quickly, and may include:

Other symptoms that can occur with this disease:

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will perform a physical exam. Questions will focus on symptoms and possible exposure to someone who might have the same symptoms, such as a stiff neck and fever.

If the provider thinks meningitis is possible, a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) will likely be done to obtain a sample of spinal fluid for testing.

Other tests that may be done include:

Treatment

Antibiotics will be started as soon as possible.

Sometimes, corticosteroids may be given.

People in close contact with someone who have meningococcal meningitis should be given antibiotics to prevent infection.

Such people include:

Outlook (Prognosis)

Early treatment improves the outcome. Death is possible. Young children and adults over age 50 have the highest risk of death.

Possible Complications

Long-term complications may include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call 911 or the local emergency number or go to an emergency room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following symptoms:

Meningitis can quickly become a life-threatening illness.

Prevention

Close contacts in the same household, school, or day care center should be watched for early signs of the disease as soon as the first person is diagnosed. All family and close contacts of this person should begin antibiotic treatment as soon as possible to prevent spread of the infection. Ask your provider about this during the first visit.

Always use good hygiene habits, such as washing hands before and after changing a diaper or after using the bathroom.

Vaccines for meningococcus are effective for controlling spread. They are currently recommended for:

Although rare, people who have been vaccinated can still develop the infection.

Related Information

Common cold
Shock
Myocarditis
Hydrocephalus
Hearing loss
Intellectual disability

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Bacterial meningitis. www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html. Updated August 6, 2019. Accessed December 1, 2020.

Pollard AJ, Sadarangani M. Neisseria meningitides (meningococcus). In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 218.

Stephens DS. Neisseria meningitidis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 211.

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Review Date: 10/25/2020  

Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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