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Urinary tract infection - adults

Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults

A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary tract. The infection can occur at different points in the urinary tract, including:

Images

Bladder catheterization, female
Bladder catheterization, male
Female urinary tract
Male urinary tract
Prevention of cystitis

Causes

Most UTIs are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and then the bladder. The infection most commonly develops in the bladder, but can spread to the kidneys. Most of the time, your body can get rid of these bacteria. However, certain conditions increase the risk of having UTIs.

Women tend to get them more often because their urethra is shorter and closer to the anus than in men. Because of this, women are more likely to get an infection after sexual activity or when using a diaphragm for birth control. Menopause also increases the risk of a UTI.

The following also increase your chances of developing a UTI:

Symptoms

The symptoms of a bladder infection include:

If the infection spreads to your kidneys, symptoms may include:

Exams and Tests

Most of the time, you will need to provide a urine sample for the following tests:

Blood tests such as complete blood count (CBC) and a blood culture may be done as well.

You may also need the following tests to help rule out other problems in your urinary system:

Treatment

Your health care provider must first decide if the infection is just in the bladder, or if it has spread to the kidneys and how severe it is.

MILD BLADDER AND KIDNEY INFECTIONS

RECURRENT BLADDER INFECTIONS

Some women have repeated bladder infections. Your provider may suggest that you:

MORE SEVERE KIDNEY INFECTIONS

You may need to go into the hospital if you are very sick and cannot take medicines by mouth or drink enough fluids. You may also be admitted to the hospital if you:

At the hospital, you will receive fluids and antibiotics through a vein.

Some people have UTIs that do not go away with treatment or keep coming back. These are called chronic UTIs. If you have a chronic UTI, you may need stronger antibiotics or to take medicine for a longer time.

You may need surgery if the infection is caused by a problem with the structure of the urinary tract.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Most UTIs can be cured. Bladder infection symptoms most often go away within 24 to 48 hours after treatment begins. If you have a kidney infection, it may take 1 week or longer for symptoms to go away.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Contact your provider if you have symptoms of a UTI. Call right away if you have signs of a possible kidney infection, such as:

Also call if UTI symptoms come back shortly after you have been treated with antibiotics.

Prevention

Diet and lifestyle changes may help prevent some UTIs. After menopause, a woman may use estrogen cream around the vagina to reduce infections.

Related Information

Urethral stricture
Bowel incontinence
Urinary tract infection - children
Perirenal abscess

References

Hooton TM. Nosocomial urinary tract infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 304.

Nicolle LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 284.

Schaeffer AJ, Matulewicz RS, Klumpp DJ. Infections of the urinary tract. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 12.

Sobel JD, Kaye D. Urinary tract infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 74.

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Review Date: 6/28/2018  

Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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