Brain injury; Head trauma; Concussion - head injury; Traumatic - head injury
A head injury is any trauma to the scalp, skull, or brain.
Head injury can be either closed or open (penetrating).
Head injuries include:
Head injuries may cause bleeding:
Head injury is a common reason for an emergency room visit. A large number of people who suffer head injuries are children. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for over 1 in 6 injury-related hospital admissions each year.
Common causes of head injury include:
Most of these injuries are minor because the skull protects the brain. Some injuries are severe enough to require a stay in the hospital.
Head injuries may cause bleeding in the brain tissue and the layers that surround the brain (subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma).
Symptoms of a head injury can occur right away or may develop slowly over several hours or days. Even if the skull is not fractured, the brain can hit the inside of the skull and be bruised. The head may look fine, but problems could result from bleeding or swelling inside the skull.
The spinal cord is also likely to be injured from falls from a significant height or ejection from a vehicle.
Some head injuries cause changes in brain function. This is called a traumatic brain injury. Concussion is a traumatic brain injury. Symptoms of a concussion can range from mild to severe.
Learning to recognize a serious head injury and give basic first aid can save someone's life. For a moderate to severe head injury, CALL 911 OR THE LOCAL EMERGENCY NUMBER RIGHT AWAY.
Get medical help right away if the person:
Then take the following steps:
Follow these precautions:
A serious head injury that involves bleeding or brain damage must be treated in a hospital.
For a mild head injury, no treatment may be needed. However, call for medical advice and watch for symptoms of a head injury, which can show up later.
Your physician or health care provider will explain what to expect, how to manage any headaches, how to treat your other symptoms, when to return to sports, school, work, and other activities, and signs or symptoms to worry about.
Both adults and children must follow the doctor or the provider's instructions about when it will be possible to return to sports.
Call 911 or the local emergency number right away if:
Not all head injuries can be prevented. The following simple steps can help keep you and your child safe:
Hockenberry B, Pusateri M, McGrew C. Sports-related head injuries. In: Kellerman RD, Rakel DP, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2022. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:790-794.
Hudgins E, Grady S. Initial resuscitation, prehospital care, and emergency room care in traumatic brain injury. In: Winn HR, ed. Youmans and Winn Neurological Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 348.
Papa L, Goldberg SA. Head trauma. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 34.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 11/13/2021
Reviewed By: Jesse Borke, MD, CPE, FAAEM, FACEP, Attending Physician at Kaiser Permanente, Orange County, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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