Restless legs syndrome and related disorders - InDepth

An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of RLS.

I Would Like to Learn About:

Related Reports

Attention deficit ...


Allen RP, Montplaisir J, Walters AS, Ferini-Strambi L, Hogl B. Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements during sleep. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 95.

Aurora RN, Kristo DA, Bista SR, et al. Update to the AASM clinical practice guideline: The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults--an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012;35(8):1039-1062. PMID: 22851801

Balserak BI, Lee KA. Sleep and sleep disorders associated with pregnancy. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 156.

Bertisch S. In the clinic. Restless legs syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(9):ITC1-ITC11. PMID: 26524584

Casoni F, Galbiati TF, Ferini-Strambi L, Marelli S, Zucconi M, Servello D. DBS in restless legs syndrome: a new therapeutic approach? Sleep Med. 2020;76:155-157. PMID: 33217666

Chokroverty S, Avidan AY. Sleep and its disorders. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, et al, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 102

Durmer JS. Restless legs syndrome, periodic leg movements and periodic limb movement disorder. In: Sheldon SH, Ferber R, Kryger MH, Gozal D, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Sleep Medicine. 2nd ed. Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43.

Garcia-Borreguero D, Silber MH, Winkelman JW, et al. Guidelines for the first-line treatment of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease, prevention and treatment of dopaminergic augmentation: a combined task force of the IRLSSG, EURLSSG, and the RLS-foundation. Sleep Med. 2016;21:1-11. PMID: 27448465

Gopaluni S, Sherif M, Ahmadouk NA. Interventions for chronic kidney disease-associated restless legs syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;11:CD010690. PMID: 27819409

Huang CW, Lee MJ, Wang LJ, et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of treatments for restless legs syndrome in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2020;35(9):1609-1618. PMID: 31157898

Jahani Kondori M, Kolla BP, Moore KM, Mansukhani MP. Management of Restless Legs Syndrome in Pregnancy and Lactation. J Prim Care Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720905950. PMID: 32054396

Jiménez-Jiménez FJ, Alonso-Navarro H, García-Martín E, Agúndez JAG. Genetics of restless legs syndrome: An update. Sleep Med Rev. 2018;39:108-121. PMID: 29033051

Kalra S, Gupta A. Diabetic Painful Neuropathy and Restless Legs Syndrome in Diabetes. Diabetes Ther. 2018;9(2):441-447. PMID: 29427229

Kolla BP, Mansukhani MP, Bostwick JM. The influence of antidepressants on restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements: A systematic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2018;38:131-140. PMID: 28822709

Mackie SE, Winkelman JW. Therapeutic utility of opioids for restless legs syndrome. Drugs. 2017;77(12):1337-1344. PMID: 28616844

de Oliveira CO, Carvalho LB, Carlos K, et al. Opioids for restless legs syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(6):CD006941. PMID: 27355187

Owens JA. Sleep medicine. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 31.

Picchietti DL, Bruni O, de Weerd A, et al, International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). Pediatric restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria: an update by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Sleep Med. 2013;14(12):1253-1259. PMID: 24184054

Ramar K, Olson EJ. Management of common sleep disorders. Am Fam Physician. 2013;88(4):231-238. PMID: 23944726

Silber MH, Becker PM, Earley C, et al. Willis-Ekbom Disease Foundation Revised Consensus Statement on the Management of Restless Legs Syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(9):977-986. PMID: 24001490

Suraev AS, Marshall NS, Vandrey R, McCartney D, Benson MJ, McGregor IS, Grunstein RR, Hoyos CM. Cannabinoid therapies in the management of sleep disorders: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies. Sleep Med Rev. 2020 Oct;53:101339. PMID: 32603954

Vaughn BV, Basner RC. Sleep disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2020:chap 377.

Wijemanne S, Ondo W. Restless Legs Syndrome: clinical features, diagnosis and a practical approach to management. Pract Neurol. 2017;17(6):444-452. PMID: 29097554

Winkelman JW, Armstrong MJ, Allen RP, et al. Practice guideline summary: treatment of restless legs syndrome in adults: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2016;87(24):2585-2593. PMID: 27856776

Zhuang S, Na M, Winkelman JW, Ba D, Liu CF, Liu G, Gao X. Association of Restless Legs Syndrome With Risk of Suicide and Self-harm. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199966. PMID: 31441941


Review Date: 12/15/2020  

Reviewed By: Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Department of Neurology, Cooper Medical School at Rowan University, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

ADAM Quality Logo
Health Content Provider

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, for Health Content Provider ( URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics. This site complied with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information from 1995 to 2022, after which HON (Health On the Net, a not-for-profit organization that promoted transparent and reliable health information online) was discontinued.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2023 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.