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Allergic rhinitis

An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of common nasal allergies. Nasal allergies can be associated with sinus inflammation and congestion; so the term 'allergic rhinosinusitis' is commonly used.

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References

Baroody FM, Naclerio RM. Allergy and immunology of the upper airway. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 38.

Bernstein DI, Schwartz G, Bernstein JA. Allergic rhinitis: mechanisms and treatment. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2016;36(2):261-278. PMID: 27083101 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27083101.

Bousquet J, Pfaar O, Togias A, et al; ARIA Working Group. 2019 ARIA Care pathways for allergen immunotherapy. Allergy. 2019;74(11):2087-2102. PMID: 30955224 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30955224.

Bousquet J, Schünemann HJ, Togias A, et al; Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma Working Group. Next-generation Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines for allergic rhinitis based on Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and real-world evidence. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;145(1):70.e3-80.e3. PMID: 31627910 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31627910.

Corren J, Baroody FM, Togias A. Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. In: Burks AW, Holgate ST, O'Hehir RE, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 40.

Greiner AN, Hellings PW, Rotiroti G, Scadding GK. Allergic rhinitis. Lancet. 2011;378(9809):2112-2122. PMID: 21783242 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21783242.

Juel-Berg N, Darling P, Bolvig J, et al. Intranasal corticosteroids compared with oral antihistamines in allergic rhinitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2017;31(1):19-28. PMID: 28234147 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28234147.

Milgrom H, Sicherer SH. Allergic rhinitis. In: Kliegman RM, St Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 168.

Peng Y, Li A, Yu L, Qin G. The role of probiotics in prevention and treatment for patients with allergic rhinitis: A systematic review. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2015;29(4):292-298. PMID:26163249 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26163249.

Seidman MD, Gurgel RK, Lin SY, et al. Clinical practice guideline: allergic rhinitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;152(1 Suppl):S1-S43. PMID: 25644617 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25644617.

Sicherer SH, Wood RA; American Academy of Pediatrics Section On Allergy And Immunology. Allergy testing in childhood: using allergen-specific IgE tests. Pediatrics. 2012;129(1):193-197. PMID: 22201146 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201146.

Wheatley LM, Togias A. Clinical practice. Allergic rhinitis. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(5):456-463. PMID: 25629743 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25629743.

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Review Date: 12/14/2019  

Reviewed By: Stuart I. Henochowicz, MD, FACP, Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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