• Cancer of the throat or larynx - Animation

    Cancer of the throat or larynx

    Animation

  • Cancer of the throat or larynx - Animation

    Malignant tumors of the vocal cords are typically caused by tobacco use.

  • Colon cancer screening - Animation

    Colon cancer screening

    Animation

  • Colon cancer screening - Animation

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The good news is that early diagnosis through preventive screening often leads to a complete cure. Colorectal cancer starts in the large intestine, also known as the colon. Nearly all colon cancers begin as noncancerous, or benign, polyps, which slowly develop into cancer. Screening can detect these polyps and early cancers. The great thing is that we can remove polyps years before cancer even has a chance to develop!Your doctor can use several tools to screen for cancer. The first step is a stool test. This test checks your bowel movements for blood that you may not even be able to see in your stool. Polyps in the colon and small cancers can bleed tiny amounts of blood that you can't see with the naked eye. The most common method is called the fecal occult blood test. A second method is called a sigmoidoscopy exam. This test uses a flexible scope to look at the lower portion of your colon. But, because it looks only at the last one-third of the large intestine, it may miss some cancers. That's why this test is usually done along with a stool test. A colonoscopy is similar to sigmoidoscopy, but it can see the entire colon. That's why we usually do colonoscopies over sigmoidoscopies nowadays. You'll usually be mildly sedated during this test. Occasionally, your doctor may recommend, as an alternative, a double-contrast barium enema--which is a special x-ray of the large intestine, or a virtual colonoscopy, which uses a CAT scan and computer software to create a 3-D image of your large intestine. So, who should be screened for colon cancer? Well, beginning at age 50, men and women should have a screening test. People with an average risk of colon cancer should have a colonoscopy every 10 years, a double-contrast barium enema every 5 years, or a fecal occult blood test every year. Additional options are sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years. People with certain risk factors for colon cancer may need screening before age 50, or more frequent testing. Such people include those with a family history of colon cancer, African-Americans, those with a history of previous colon cancer or polyps, or folks with a history of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, which are both chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. The death rate for colon cancer has dropped in the past 15 years and this may be due to increased awareness and colon screening. In general, early diagnosis can lead to a complete cure.

  • Cervical cancer - Animation

    Cervical cancer

    Animation

  • Cervical cancer - Animation

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. Luckily, it's much less common in the United States due to women receiving recommended routine Pap smears, the test designed to find cervical cancer sometimes even before abnormal cells turn to cancer. Cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of the cervix, the lower portion of the uterus. There are two types of cells on the surface of the cervix, squamous and columnar. Most cervical cancers come from these squamous cells. The cancer usually starts very slowly as a condition called dysplasia. This precancerous condition can be detected by Pap smear and is 100% treatable. Undetected, precancerous changes can develop into cervical cancer and spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. It can take years for these precancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer. However, patients with cervical cancer do not usually have problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread. Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms of advanced cancer may include back pain, bone fractures, fatigue, heavy vaginal bleeding, urine leakage, leg pain, loss of appetite, and pelvic pain. If after having a Pap smear, the doctor finds abnormal changes on the cervix, a colposcopy can be ordered. Using a light and a low-powered microscope, the doctor will view the cervix under magnification. The doctor may remove pieces of tissue, called a biopsy, and send the sample to a laboratory for testing. If the woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer, the doctor will order more tests to determine how far the cancer has spread. This is called Staging. Treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer, the size and shape of the tumor, the woman's age and general health, and her desire to have children in the future. Early cervical cancer can be treated with surgery just to remove abnormal tissue, freeze abnormal cells, or burn abnormal tissue. Treatment for more advanced cervical cancer may include radical hysterectomy, removal of the uterus and much of the surrounding tissue, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina. Radiation may be used to treat cancer that has spread beyond the pelvis, or if cancer returns. The woman may also have chemotherapy to kill cancer cells. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by human papilloma virus, or HPV. This common virus is spread through sexual intercourse. HPV vaccines can prevent infection against the two types of HPV responsible for about 70% of cervical cancer. Practicing safe sex also reduces the risk of getting HPV. But, keep in mind most women diagnosed with cervical cancer have not had their regular Pap smears. Because Pap smears can find precancerous growths that are 100% treatable, it's very important for women to get Pap smears at regular intervals.

  • Lung cancer - Animation

    Lung cancer

    Animation

  • Lung cancer - Animation

    Cancer can affect just about any part of the body, from the colon to the pancreas. Some cancers grow quickly, while others grow more slowly and are easier to treat. But of all the different cancers out there, one of the deadliest is lung cancer. Let's talk today about lung cancer. Cancer starts when cells begin to grow uncontrollably and form tumors. In the case of lung cancer, the tumors start in the lungs. Sometimes cancer starts somewhere else in the body and then spreads to the lungs. In that case, it's called metastatic cancer to the lung. "Metastatic" means disease that has spread. There are two types of lung cancer. The most common, and slower-growing form is non-small cell lung cancer. The other, faster-growing form is called small cell lung cancer. The most common way to get lung cancer is to smoke cigarettes. The more cigarettes you smoke and the earlier you start smoking, the greater your risk is. Even being around someone who smokes and breathing in the secondhand smoke from their cigarettes increases your risk of getting lung cancer. Even though smoking makes you much more likely to get lung cancer, you don't have to smoke or be exposed to smoke to get the disease. Some people who have lung cancer never lit up a cigarette in their life. They have been exposed to cancer-causing substances like asbestos, diesel fumes, arsenic, radiation, or radon gas. Or, they may not have had any known lung cancer risks. The most common signs of lung cancer are a cough that won't go away, chest pain, shortness of breath, weight loss, and fatigue. But just because you have these symptoms it doesn't mean that you have don't have lung cancer. These can also be signs of other conditions, like asthma or a respiratory infection. If you do have these symptoms, see your doctor. A chest x-ray, MRI, or CT scan can view the inside of your lungs to look for signs of cancer or other diseases. What happens if you do have lung cancer?Doctors divide lung cancer into stages. The higher the stage, the more the cancer has spread. For example, a stage 1 cancer is small and hasn't spread outside of the lungs. A stage 4 cancer has spread to the other organs, such as the kidneys or brain. Depending upon the type and stage of your lung cancer, you may need surgery to remove part or all of your lung. Or, your doctor may recommend radiation or chemotherapy to kill cancer cells. If you have lung cancer, how well you do depends upon the stage of your disease and the type of lung cancer that you have. Early-stage cancers have the highest survival and cure rates. Late-stage cancers are harder to treat. Because lung cancer can be so deadly, prevention is key. The most important that thing you can do is to stop smoking, and avoid being around anyone who does smoke.

  • Colon cancer - Animation

    Colon cancer

    Animation

  • Colon cancer - Animation

    Colon cancer may not be talked about as often as other cancers, like breast cancer, prostate or lung cancer, but it's actually one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. It is for this reason it's very important to stay on top of your colon health. The colon is your large intestine, the long, upside -down U-shaped tube that is toward the end of the line for getting rid of waste in your body. Colon cancer can start in the lining of the intestine, or at the end of it, called the rectum. Let's try to better understand Colon cancer. You're more likely to get the disease if you're over age 60, especially if you have a family history of colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, or obesity. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol has also been found to increase your risk of getting colon cancer. Although the data are not consistent, eating red meat or processed meats may increase the risks of colon cancer as well. Lean, unprocessed red meat, may be associated with less risk. If you have symptoms, they may include pain in your abdomen, blood in your stool, weight loss, or diarrhea. But hopefully, you'll get diagnosed before you have any symptoms, during a regular screening test like a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. These tests use special instruments to see inside your colon and rectum to look for any cancerous or pre-cancerous growths, called polyps. If your doctor discovers that you do have colon cancer, unfortunately, you'll need to have a few more tests, including scans of your abdomen to find out whether the cancer has spread, and if so, where in your body it's located. So, how is colon cancer treated?That really depends on how aggressive your cancer is and how far it's spread, but usually colon cancer is removed with surgery, or killed with chemotherapy or radiation. You may get one, or a combination, of these treatments. Colon cancer is one of the more treatable cancers. You can be cured, especially if you catch it early. Spotting colon cancer when it's still treatable is up to you. If you're over age 50, you need to get screened with a colonoscopy. During this test, your doctor can find, and remove colon polyps before they have a chance to turn cancerous. And, regular physical activity and eating at least some fruits and vegetables daily, perhaps with unprocessed wheat bran, can help prevent it. If you want to prevent colon cancer, you'll also want to avoid processed and charred red meats, and smoking, and excess calories, and alcohol.

  • Prostate cancer - Animation

    Prostate cancer

    Animation

  • Prostate cancer - Animation

    As men get older, they have a lot of new worries to deal with, from hair loss, weight gain, perhaps even erectile dysfunction. In addition, cancer is one of the biggest concerns that older men face, especially prostate cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death in men over 75. Younger men may not be very familiar with their prostate, the walnut-shaped gland that wraps around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body. But as they get older, the prostate can start to cause problems. Men over the age of 60 are at increased risk for prostate cancer, especially if they're of African descent, they have a father or brother with the disease, or they eat a lot of burgers and processed meats in their daily diet. It can be hard to pinpoint prostate cancer symptoms, because they usually start late in the disease and they can mimic symptoms of a benign, enlarged prostate, which is also more common in older men. Symptoms like a slow urine stream, dribbling, blood in the urine, or straining while urinating can be signs of either condition. An enlarged prostate can also confuse the results of a PSA test, which is used to screen for prostate cancer. So, if your doctor thinks you might have prostate cancer, you may need a biopsy, which is a procedure that removes a small piece of prostate tissue and sends it to the lab to check for cancer. Then a scoring system called the Gleason grade is used to tell how fast your cancer might spread. Your Gleason grade will help decide what treatment you get. Early-stage prostate cancers that haven't spread are often removed with surgery, and then treated with radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Prostate cancer surgery may affect your ability to have sex and control urine, so talk about these issues with your doctor before you have the procedure. Because prostate cancer tends to grow very slowly, your doctor may want to just monitor you with PSA tests and biopsies, and avoid treatment unless the cancer starts to spread. Prostate cancer that has spread is usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. If your doctor discovers prostate cancer in its early stages, before it spreads, it's pretty easy to treat, and even cure. Treatments can also slow down prostate cancer that's spread, and extend your survival. Before you have to deal with a prostate cancer diagnosis, ask your doctor for ways to prevent and screen for the disease. Eating a healthy, low-fat diet that's high in healthy omega-3 fatty acids might help lower your risk. There are also drugs called finasteride and dutasteride that are used in some men to prevent prostate cancer. Talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of these drugs, as well as the possible benefits and risks of having your PSA levels tested.

  • Breast cancer - Animation

    Breast cancer

    Animation

  • Breast cancer - Animation

    Of all the different types of cancers, breast cancer is one of the most talked about, and with good reason. One out of every eight women will develop breast cancer sometime in their life. That's why every woman should be thinking about how to protect herself from this disease. Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the breast. Usually, it begins in the tubes that transport milk from the breast to the nipple. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the breast or body, it's called invasive breast cancer. Some breast cancers are more aggressive, growing more quickly than others. Although women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer, men can also get the disease because they do have breast tissue. You're more likely to get breast cancer if you're over 50, you started your periods before age 12, or you have a close family member with the disease. Drinking more than a couple of glasses of alcohol a day and using hormone replacement therapy for several years also may increase your risk. The telltale sign of breast cancer is a lump in your breast or armpit. You may also notice a change in the shape, size, or texture of your breast, or have fluid coming from your nipple when you're not breastfeeding. If you notice any changes in your breasts, call your doctor. You'll probably need to have an imaging scan, such as a mammogram, MRI, or ultrasound. A piece of tissue may be removed from your breast, called a biopsy. With these tests, your doctor can tell whether you have breast cancer, and if so, determine whether or not it has spread. So, how do we treat breast cancer?That really depends on the type of cancer, and how quickly it's spreading. Your doctor may recommend that you have the cancer removed with surgery. Sometimes it's enough just to remove the lump. That's called a lumpectomy. In other cases, the doctor will need to remove the entire breast to get rid of all the cancer or prevent it from coming back. That's called a mastectomy. Other treatments for breast cancer include chemotherapy, medicines that kill cancer cells, and radiation therapy, which uses energy to destroy cancer. Women whose cancer is fueled by the hormone estrogen may receive hormone therapy to block the effects of estrogen on their cancer. Today's breast cancer treatments are better than ever. Many women who have breast cancer go on to live long, healthy lives. The outlook really depends on how fast the tumor is growing, and how far it has spread. That's why it's so important to report any changes in your breasts to your doctor as soon as you notice them. Women who are at an especially high risk for breast cancer because of their family history can talk to their doctor about taking medicine or even having surgery to reduce their risk.

  • Lung cancer - chemotherapy treatment

    Lung cancer - chemotherapy treatment

    Treatment for lung cancer depends on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. Chemotherapy is a form of treatment for lung cancer which may cure, shrink or keep the cancer from spreading.

    Lung cancer - chemotherapy treatment

    illustration

  • Rectal cancer - x-ray

    Rectal cancer - x-ray

    A barium enema in a patient with cancer of the rectum.

    Rectal cancer - x-ray

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, squamous cell on the hands

    Skin cancer, squamous cell on the hands

    This is a picture of squamous cell skin cancer on the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the three most common types of skin cancer: basal cell, squamous cell, and melanoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically as soon as they are diagnosed.

    Skin cancer, squamous cell on the hands

    illustration

  • Thyroid cancer - CT scan

    Thyroid cancer - CT scan

    This CT scan of the upper chest (thorax) shows a malignant thyroid tumor (cancer). The dark area around the trachea (marked by the white U-shaped tip of the respiratory tube) is an area where normal tissue has been eroded and died (necrosis) as a result of tumor growth.

    Thyroid cancer - CT scan

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, melanoma - raised, dark lesion

    Skin cancer, melanoma - raised, dark lesion

    Note the presence of multiple colors within this melanoma lesion. It is referred to as "patriotic cancer" because it is typically colored red, white, blue/black. This is a common appearance for a melanoma.

    Skin cancer, melanoma - raised, dark lesion

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, melanoma - flat, brown lesion

    Skin cancer, melanoma - flat, brown lesion

    Melanomas are sometimes called the patriotic cancer because they may be colored red, whitish, and blue (to blue-black) all in the same lesion. This lesion has multiple colors.

    Skin cancer, melanoma - flat, brown lesion

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, squamous cell - close-up

    Skin cancer, squamous cell - close-up

    Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the three most common types of skin cancer: basal cell, squamous cell, and melanoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically as soon as they are diagnosed.

    Skin cancer, squamous cell - close-up

    illustration

  • Skin cancer - raised multi-color melanoma

    Skin cancer - raised multi-color melanoma

    Melanomas are sometimes called the patriotic cancer because they may be colored red, whitish, and blue (to blue-black) all in the same lesion. This lesion has multiple colors.

    Skin cancer - raised multi-color melanoma

    illustration

  • Hepatocellular cancer - CT scan

    Hepatocellular cancer - CT scan

    A CT scan of the upper abdomen showing a widespread (disseminated) carcinoma of the liver (hepato cellular carcinoma). The liver is the large organ on the left side of the picture. Note the moth-eaten appearance.

    Hepatocellular cancer - CT scan

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma - nose

    Skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma - nose

    The typical basal cell skin cancer appears as a small, pearly, dome-shaped nodule with small visible blood vessels (telangiectasias).

    Skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma - nose

    illustration

  • Colon cancer - Series

    Colon cancer - Series

    Presentation

  • Colon cancer - series

    Colon cancer - series

    Presentation

  • Cancer of the throat or larynx - Animation

    Cancer of the throat or larynx

    Animation

  • Cancer of the throat or larynx - Animation

    Malignant tumors of the vocal cords are typically caused by tobacco use.

  • Colon cancer screening - Animation

    Colon cancer screening

    Animation

  • Colon cancer screening - Animation

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The good news is that early diagnosis through preventive screening often leads to a complete cure. Colorectal cancer starts in the large intestine, also known as the colon. Nearly all colon cancers begin as noncancerous, or benign, polyps, which slowly develop into cancer. Screening can detect these polyps and early cancers. The great thing is that we can remove polyps years before cancer even has a chance to develop!Your doctor can use several tools to screen for cancer. The first step is a stool test. This test checks your bowel movements for blood that you may not even be able to see in your stool. Polyps in the colon and small cancers can bleed tiny amounts of blood that you can't see with the naked eye. The most common method is called the fecal occult blood test. A second method is called a sigmoidoscopy exam. This test uses a flexible scope to look at the lower portion of your colon. But, because it looks only at the last one-third of the large intestine, it may miss some cancers. That's why this test is usually done along with a stool test. A colonoscopy is similar to sigmoidoscopy, but it can see the entire colon. That's why we usually do colonoscopies over sigmoidoscopies nowadays. You'll usually be mildly sedated during this test. Occasionally, your doctor may recommend, as an alternative, a double-contrast barium enema--which is a special x-ray of the large intestine, or a virtual colonoscopy, which uses a CAT scan and computer software to create a 3-D image of your large intestine. So, who should be screened for colon cancer? Well, beginning at age 50, men and women should have a screening test. People with an average risk of colon cancer should have a colonoscopy every 10 years, a double-contrast barium enema every 5 years, or a fecal occult blood test every year. Additional options are sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years. People with certain risk factors for colon cancer may need screening before age 50, or more frequent testing. Such people include those with a family history of colon cancer, African-Americans, those with a history of previous colon cancer or polyps, or folks with a history of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, which are both chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. The death rate for colon cancer has dropped in the past 15 years and this may be due to increased awareness and colon screening. In general, early diagnosis can lead to a complete cure.

  • Cervical cancer - Animation

    Cervical cancer

    Animation

  • Cervical cancer - Animation

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. Luckily, it's much less common in the United States due to women receiving recommended routine Pap smears, the test designed to find cervical cancer sometimes even before abnormal cells turn to cancer. Cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of the cervix, the lower portion of the uterus. There are two types of cells on the surface of the cervix, squamous and columnar. Most cervical cancers come from these squamous cells. The cancer usually starts very slowly as a condition called dysplasia. This precancerous condition can be detected by Pap smear and is 100% treatable. Undetected, precancerous changes can develop into cervical cancer and spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. It can take years for these precancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer. However, patients with cervical cancer do not usually have problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread. Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms of advanced cancer may include back pain, bone fractures, fatigue, heavy vaginal bleeding, urine leakage, leg pain, loss of appetite, and pelvic pain. If after having a Pap smear, the doctor finds abnormal changes on the cervix, a colposcopy can be ordered. Using a light and a low-powered microscope, the doctor will view the cervix under magnification. The doctor may remove pieces of tissue, called a biopsy, and send the sample to a laboratory for testing. If the woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer, the doctor will order more tests to determine how far the cancer has spread. This is called Staging. Treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer, the size and shape of the tumor, the woman's age and general health, and her desire to have children in the future. Early cervical cancer can be treated with surgery just to remove abnormal tissue, freeze abnormal cells, or burn abnormal tissue. Treatment for more advanced cervical cancer may include radical hysterectomy, removal of the uterus and much of the surrounding tissue, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina. Radiation may be used to treat cancer that has spread beyond the pelvis, or if cancer returns. The woman may also have chemotherapy to kill cancer cells. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by human papilloma virus, or HPV. This common virus is spread through sexual intercourse. HPV vaccines can prevent infection against the two types of HPV responsible for about 70% of cervical cancer. Practicing safe sex also reduces the risk of getting HPV. But, keep in mind most women diagnosed with cervical cancer have not had their regular Pap smears. Because Pap smears can find precancerous growths that are 100% treatable, it's very important for women to get Pap smears at regular intervals.

  • Lung cancer - Animation

    Lung cancer

    Animation

  • Lung cancer - Animation

    Cancer can affect just about any part of the body, from the colon to the pancreas. Some cancers grow quickly, while others grow more slowly and are easier to treat. But of all the different cancers out there, one of the deadliest is lung cancer. Let's talk today about lung cancer. Cancer starts when cells begin to grow uncontrollably and form tumors. In the case of lung cancer, the tumors start in the lungs. Sometimes cancer starts somewhere else in the body and then spreads to the lungs. In that case, it's called metastatic cancer to the lung. "Metastatic" means disease that has spread. There are two types of lung cancer. The most common, and slower-growing form is non-small cell lung cancer. The other, faster-growing form is called small cell lung cancer. The most common way to get lung cancer is to smoke cigarettes. The more cigarettes you smoke and the earlier you start smoking, the greater your risk is. Even being around someone who smokes and breathing in the secondhand smoke from their cigarettes increases your risk of getting lung cancer. Even though smoking makes you much more likely to get lung cancer, you don't have to smoke or be exposed to smoke to get the disease. Some people who have lung cancer never lit up a cigarette in their life. They have been exposed to cancer-causing substances like asbestos, diesel fumes, arsenic, radiation, or radon gas. Or, they may not have had any known lung cancer risks. The most common signs of lung cancer are a cough that won't go away, chest pain, shortness of breath, weight loss, and fatigue. But just because you have these symptoms it doesn't mean that you have don't have lung cancer. These can also be signs of other conditions, like asthma or a respiratory infection. If you do have these symptoms, see your doctor. A chest x-ray, MRI, or CT scan can view the inside of your lungs to look for signs of cancer or other diseases. What happens if you do have lung cancer?Doctors divide lung cancer into stages. The higher the stage, the more the cancer has spread. For example, a stage 1 cancer is small and hasn't spread outside of the lungs. A stage 4 cancer has spread to the other organs, such as the kidneys or brain. Depending upon the type and stage of your lung cancer, you may need surgery to remove part or all of your lung. Or, your doctor may recommend radiation or chemotherapy to kill cancer cells. If you have lung cancer, how well you do depends upon the stage of your disease and the type of lung cancer that you have. Early-stage cancers have the highest survival and cure rates. Late-stage cancers are harder to treat. Because lung cancer can be so deadly, prevention is key. The most important that thing you can do is to stop smoking, and avoid being around anyone who does smoke.

  • Colon cancer - Animation

    Colon cancer

    Animation

  • Colon cancer - Animation

    Colon cancer may not be talked about as often as other cancers, like breast cancer, prostate or lung cancer, but it's actually one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. It is for this reason it's very important to stay on top of your colon health. The colon is your large intestine, the long, upside -down U-shaped tube that is toward the end of the line for getting rid of waste in your body. Colon cancer can start in the lining of the intestine, or at the end of it, called the rectum. Let's try to better understand Colon cancer. You're more likely to get the disease if you're over age 60, especially if you have a family history of colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, or obesity. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol has also been found to increase your risk of getting colon cancer. Although the data are not consistent, eating red meat or processed meats may increase the risks of colon cancer as well. Lean, unprocessed red meat, may be associated with less risk. If you have symptoms, they may include pain in your abdomen, blood in your stool, weight loss, or diarrhea. But hopefully, you'll get diagnosed before you have any symptoms, during a regular screening test like a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. These tests use special instruments to see inside your colon and rectum to look for any cancerous or pre-cancerous growths, called polyps. If your doctor discovers that you do have colon cancer, unfortunately, you'll need to have a few more tests, including scans of your abdomen to find out whether the cancer has spread, and if so, where in your body it's located. So, how is colon cancer treated?That really depends on how aggressive your cancer is and how far it's spread, but usually colon cancer is removed with surgery, or killed with chemotherapy or radiation. You may get one, or a combination, of these treatments. Colon cancer is one of the more treatable cancers. You can be cured, especially if you catch it early. Spotting colon cancer when it's still treatable is up to you. If you're over age 50, you need to get screened with a colonoscopy. During this test, your doctor can find, and remove colon polyps before they have a chance to turn cancerous. And, regular physical activity and eating at least some fruits and vegetables daily, perhaps with unprocessed wheat bran, can help prevent it. If you want to prevent colon cancer, you'll also want to avoid processed and charred red meats, and smoking, and excess calories, and alcohol.

  • Prostate cancer - Animation

    Prostate cancer

    Animation

  • Prostate cancer - Animation

    As men get older, they have a lot of new worries to deal with, from hair loss, weight gain, perhaps even erectile dysfunction. In addition, cancer is one of the biggest concerns that older men face, especially prostate cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death in men over 75. Younger men may not be very familiar with their prostate, the walnut-shaped gland that wraps around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body. But as they get older, the prostate can start to cause problems. Men over the age of 60 are at increased risk for prostate cancer, especially if they're of African descent, they have a father or brother with the disease, or they eat a lot of burgers and processed meats in their daily diet. It can be hard to pinpoint prostate cancer symptoms, because they usually start late in the disease and they can mimic symptoms of a benign, enlarged prostate, which is also more common in older men. Symptoms like a slow urine stream, dribbling, blood in the urine, or straining while urinating can be signs of either condition. An enlarged prostate can also confuse the results of a PSA test, which is used to screen for prostate cancer. So, if your doctor thinks you might have prostate cancer, you may need a biopsy, which is a procedure that removes a small piece of prostate tissue and sends it to the lab to check for cancer. Then a scoring system called the Gleason grade is used to tell how fast your cancer might spread. Your Gleason grade will help decide what treatment you get. Early-stage prostate cancers that haven't spread are often removed with surgery, and then treated with radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Prostate cancer surgery may affect your ability to have sex and control urine, so talk about these issues with your doctor before you have the procedure. Because prostate cancer tends to grow very slowly, your doctor may want to just monitor you with PSA tests and biopsies, and avoid treatment unless the cancer starts to spread. Prostate cancer that has spread is usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. If your doctor discovers prostate cancer in its early stages, before it spreads, it's pretty easy to treat, and even cure. Treatments can also slow down prostate cancer that's spread, and extend your survival. Before you have to deal with a prostate cancer diagnosis, ask your doctor for ways to prevent and screen for the disease. Eating a healthy, low-fat diet that's high in healthy omega-3 fatty acids might help lower your risk. There are also drugs called finasteride and dutasteride that are used in some men to prevent prostate cancer. Talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of these drugs, as well as the possible benefits and risks of having your PSA levels tested.

  • Breast cancer - Animation

    Breast cancer

    Animation

  • Breast cancer - Animation

    Of all the different types of cancers, breast cancer is one of the most talked about, and with good reason. One out of every eight women will develop breast cancer sometime in their life. That's why every woman should be thinking about how to protect herself from this disease. Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the breast. Usually, it begins in the tubes that transport milk from the breast to the nipple. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the breast or body, it's called invasive breast cancer. Some breast cancers are more aggressive, growing more quickly than others. Although women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer, men can also get the disease because they do have breast tissue. You're more likely to get breast cancer if you're over 50, you started your periods before age 12, or you have a close family member with the disease. Drinking more than a couple of glasses of alcohol a day and using hormone replacement therapy for several years also may increase your risk. The telltale sign of breast cancer is a lump in your breast or armpit. You may also notice a change in the shape, size, or texture of your breast, or have fluid coming from your nipple when you're not breastfeeding. If you notice any changes in your breasts, call your doctor. You'll probably need to have an imaging scan, such as a mammogram, MRI, or ultrasound. A piece of tissue may be removed from your breast, called a biopsy. With these tests, your doctor can tell whether you have breast cancer, and if so, determine whether or not it has spread. So, how do we treat breast cancer?That really depends on the type of cancer, and how quickly it's spreading. Your doctor may recommend that you have the cancer removed with surgery. Sometimes it's enough just to remove the lump. That's called a lumpectomy. In other cases, the doctor will need to remove the entire breast to get rid of all the cancer or prevent it from coming back. That's called a mastectomy. Other treatments for breast cancer include chemotherapy, medicines that kill cancer cells, and radiation therapy, which uses energy to destroy cancer. Women whose cancer is fueled by the hormone estrogen may receive hormone therapy to block the effects of estrogen on their cancer. Today's breast cancer treatments are better than ever. Many women who have breast cancer go on to live long, healthy lives. The outlook really depends on how fast the tumor is growing, and how far it has spread. That's why it's so important to report any changes in your breasts to your doctor as soon as you notice them. Women who are at an especially high risk for breast cancer because of their family history can talk to their doctor about taking medicine or even having surgery to reduce their risk.

  • Lung cancer - chemotherapy treatment

    Lung cancer - chemotherapy treatment

    Treatment for lung cancer depends on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. Chemotherapy is a form of treatment for lung cancer which may cure, shrink or keep the cancer from spreading.

    Lung cancer - chemotherapy treatment

    illustration

  • Rectal cancer - x-ray

    Rectal cancer - x-ray

    A barium enema in a patient with cancer of the rectum.

    Rectal cancer - x-ray

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, squamous cell on the hands

    Skin cancer, squamous cell on the hands

    This is a picture of squamous cell skin cancer on the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the three most common types of skin cancer: basal cell, squamous cell, and melanoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically as soon as they are diagnosed.

    Skin cancer, squamous cell on the hands

    illustration

  • Thyroid cancer - CT scan

    Thyroid cancer - CT scan

    This CT scan of the upper chest (thorax) shows a malignant thyroid tumor (cancer). The dark area around the trachea (marked by the white U-shaped tip of the respiratory tube) is an area where normal tissue has been eroded and died (necrosis) as a result of tumor growth.

    Thyroid cancer - CT scan

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, melanoma - raised, dark lesion

    Skin cancer, melanoma - raised, dark lesion

    Note the presence of multiple colors within this melanoma lesion. It is referred to as "patriotic cancer" because it is typically colored red, white, blue/black. This is a common appearance for a melanoma.

    Skin cancer, melanoma - raised, dark lesion

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, melanoma - flat, brown lesion

    Skin cancer, melanoma - flat, brown lesion

    Melanomas are sometimes called the patriotic cancer because they may be colored red, whitish, and blue (to blue-black) all in the same lesion. This lesion has multiple colors.

    Skin cancer, melanoma - flat, brown lesion

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, squamous cell - close-up

    Skin cancer, squamous cell - close-up

    Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the three most common types of skin cancer: basal cell, squamous cell, and melanoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically as soon as they are diagnosed.

    Skin cancer, squamous cell - close-up

    illustration

  • Skin cancer - raised multi-color melanoma

    Skin cancer - raised multi-color melanoma

    Melanomas are sometimes called the patriotic cancer because they may be colored red, whitish, and blue (to blue-black) all in the same lesion. This lesion has multiple colors.

    Skin cancer - raised multi-color melanoma

    illustration

  • Hepatocellular cancer - CT scan

    Hepatocellular cancer - CT scan

    A CT scan of the upper abdomen showing a widespread (disseminated) carcinoma of the liver (hepato cellular carcinoma). The liver is the large organ on the left side of the picture. Note the moth-eaten appearance.

    Hepatocellular cancer - CT scan

    illustration

  • Skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma - nose

    Skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma - nose

    The typical basal cell skin cancer appears as a small, pearly, dome-shaped nodule with small visible blood vessels (telangiectasias).

    Skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma - nose

    illustration

  • Colon cancer - Series

    Colon cancer - Series

    Presentation

  • Colon cancer - series

    Colon cancer - series

    Presentation


Review Date: 1/10/2019

Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
adam.com

 

 

 

A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.
Content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.