<div class=media-desc><strong>Smoking tips to quit</strong><p>You probably know by now that smoking damages your lungs, raising your risk for bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer. And, you're probably well aware that lighting up also puts you at risk for many different types of cancers, as well as eye disease like cataracts and premature wrinkles, you know why you shouldn't smoke, it's just the quitting part you can't seem to get past. Let's talk about some helpful tips to help you quit smoking, for good this time. It's a familiar story, one that plays out over and over again among smokers. You vow to quit, and you have every intention of doing it, and then the cravings hit. And you can't think about anything but having a cigarette. You get irritable, and you start putting on weight. You think, Just one cigarette wouldn't hurt, would it? And then, before you know it, you're smoking again. Most smokers have tried to quit, and failed, several times. Even if you've failed before, you can still succeed at quitting. Many people have. You just need to find the technique that works for you. So, here are a few tips that can help. First, set a quit date. Write it down on your calendar and tell a few friends, so you'll be too embarrassed to back out. Before your quit date, throw out every cigarette in your house, car, and office. Also toss every ashtray, lighter, and anything else you need to smoke. Wash your clothes and clean your furniture so you won't have that smoky smell hanging around your house. Next, call your doctor. Ask about smoking cessation programs in your area. Also learn about tools that can help you quit, like medicines that reduce the urge to smoke, and nicotine replacement gums, lozenges, patches, and sprays. And then, plan what you'll do instead of smoking. If you smoke with your morning cup of coffee, drink tea or go for a walk instead. If you need a cigarette to keep your mouth busy, try chewing sugarless gum or nibble on a carrot stick. Stick to places where smoking isn't allowed, like smoke-free restaurants. And finally, reward yourself for not smoking. Put all that money that you would have spent on cigarettes into a jar. And once you've collected enough money, use it to take a trip or buy something you've wanted for a long time. Don't get discouraged. Quitting smoking isn't easy. If it were, everyone would have done it by now. Be persistent, reward yourself for the progress you've made, and keep at it until you finally conquer the urge to smoke.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Tobacco and cancer</strong><p>Tobacco and its various components increase the risk of several types of cancer especially cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, and cervix. Smoking also increases the risk of heart attacks, strokes and chronic lung disease.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Lung cancer</strong><p>Cancer can affect just about any part of the body, from the colon to the pancreas. Some cancers grow quickly, while others grow more slowly and are easier to treat. But of all the different cancers out there, one of the deadliest is lung cancer. Let's talk today about lung cancer. Cancer starts when cells begin to grow uncontrollably and form tumors. In the case of lung cancer, the tumors start in the lungs. Sometimes cancer starts somewhere else in the body and then spreads to the lungs. In that case, it's called metastatic cancer to the lung. Metastatic means disease that has spread. There are two types of lung cancer. The most common, and slower-growing form is non-small cell lung cancer. The other, faster-growing form is called small cell lung cancer. The most common way to get lung cancer is to smoke cigarettes. The more cigarettes you smoke and the earlier you start smoking, the greater your risk is. Even being around someone who smokes and breathing in the secondhand smoke from their cigarettes increases your risk of getting lung cancer. Even though smoking makes you much more likely to get lung cancer, you don't have to smoke or be exposed to smoke to get the disease. Some people who have lung cancer never lit up a cigarette in their life. They have been exposed to cancer-causing substances like asbestos, diesel fumes, arsenic, radiation, or radon gas. Or, they may not have had any known lung cancer risks. The most common signs of lung cancer are a cough that won't go away, chest pain, shortness of breath, weight loss, and fatigue. But just because you have these symptoms it doesn't mean that you have don't have lung cancer. These can also be signs of other conditions, like asthma or a respiratory infection. If you do have these symptoms, see your doctor. A chest x-ray, MRI, or CT scan can view the inside of your lungs to look for signs of cancer or other diseases. What happens if you do have lung cancer? Doctors divide lung cancer into stages. The higher the stage, the more the cancer has spread. For example, a stage 1 cancer is small and hasn't spread outside of the lungs. A stage 4 cancer has spread to the other organs, such as the kidneys or brain. Depending upon the type and stage of your lung cancer, you may need surgery to remove part or all of your lung. Or, your doctor may recommend radiation or chemotherapy to kill cancer cells. If you have lung cancer, how well you do depends upon the stage of your disease and the type of lung cancer that you have. Early-stage cancers have the highest survival and cure rates. Late-stage cancers are harder to treat. Because lung cancer can be so deadly, prevention is key. The most important that thing you can do is to stop smoking, and avoid being around anyone who does smoke.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Phytochemicals</strong><p>Plants provide many beneficial nutrients, including phytochemicals, which may protect against cancer. Isothiocyanates (found in broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts) may suppress tumor growth and hormone production. Flavonoids (apples, grapefruit, red wine, soy, etc.), and lycopene (found in tomatoes) also demonstrate protection against cancer.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Sun protection</strong><p>Clothing which blocks or screens the harmful rays of the sun (UVA and UVB), in combination with wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, and sunscreen, are all helpful in preventing damage to the eyes and skin. Any one of these by itself, even the sunscreen, may not be enough to prevent sun damage.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Hodgkin lymphoma</strong><p>Did you ever touch your neck and feel a bump on one or both sides? Usually, it’s just a swollen gland or lymph node that’s caused by a cold or other infection. But occasionally, swollen lymph nodes can be a sign of cancer, perhaps a cancer called Hodgkin lymphoma.

These are your lymph nodes. You’ll find them not only on your neck, but in your armpits and groin too. They’re a part of your body’s normal defense system, which protects you against invading viruses and bacteria.

Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that starts inside the lymph nodes. What causes Hodgkin lymphoma isn’t known, but having the Epstein-Barr virus or HIV, may increase your risk.

So, what are the signs of Hodgkin lymphoma? In addition to having swollen lymph nodes, you may feel tired and have no appetite. Some people wake up in the middle of the night soaked in sweat. That’s called night sweats. Remember, though, that these symptoms can occur with many different conditions. So if you have them, don’t panic. But do see your doctor, who can tell you for sure what’s causing your symptoms.

If your doctor suspects that you have Hodgkin lymphoma, your doctor will probably cut and remove a small piece of tissue from your lymph node, called a biopsy, and the samples will be sent to a lab to look for cancer cells.

If cancer is diagnosed, other tests are used to stage it, in other words, to see whether the disease has spread, and if so, how far it’s spread. That helps your doctor find the right treatment.

If you have Hodgkin lymphoma, most often the treatment involves radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both. People who don’t respond to these treatments sometimes need a bone marrow transplant.

While you’re being treated for Hodgkin lymphoma, you may need other therapies to help you feel better. That might include antibiotics to fight an infection, or a blood transfusion to add red blood cells when they’re low.

Getting diagnosed with any type of cancer can be difficult to hear. But, you should know that Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the most curable types of cancer. Even if the disease has spread, your chances of survival are very high.

You can improve your odds by following the entire treatment plan. Once your lymphoma has been treated, you’ll need to see your doctor regularly for check-ups to make sure the cancer hasn’t returned, and to monitor for any side effects your treatment may have caused.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Radiation therapy</strong><p>Radiation therapy is used to fight many types of cancer. Radiation targets rapidly dividing cells like cancer cells. Radiation prevents cell division and the replication of DNA (the genetic building blocks).</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Basal cell carcinoma</strong><p>If you're like many Americans, you've spent hours in the sun trying to get the perfect, golden tan. But tanning has its downsides, including an increased risk of skin cancers like basal cell carcinoma. Most people who get skin cancer have the basal cell carcinoma form. The good news is that this type of skin cancer grows very slowly compared to the more dangerous melanoma type. The bad news is, it's still cancer. You're more likely to get basal cell carcinoma on the parts of your skin that are exposed to the sun, like your scalp, if you don't wear a hat when you go outside. People who are fair-skinned, with blonde hair and blue eyes are also at greater risk for skin cancer than those with darker skin. To find out if you may have basal cell carcinoma, first, do a skin check. Look in a mirror and check your body for any bumps that look white, pink, or brown, or that have crusted over and bleed but don't heal. If you spot anything unusual on your skin, see your dermatologist. The doctor can perform a biopsy removing some or all of the growth and sending it to a lab where it can be checked for cancer. Basal cell carcinoma doesn't grow very quickly, and it's not likely to spread. Your doctor should be able to remove the bumps by cutting, scraping, or freezing it off. Once the cancer is removed, there's a good chance you'll be cured. But because skin cancer can come back, you always want to keep a close eye on your skin, and call your doctor if you notice any new growths. A lot of diseases are beyond your control, but skin cancer is one condition you do have some control over. The best way to avoid getting it is to stop sun worshipping. Seek shade during the hours when the sun is strongest, usually from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. and especially during the summer months. If you do have to be outside then, slather on a thick layer of sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, one that protects against both UVA and UVB rays. Reapply it often, if you're in the water where the sunscreen can wash off. Also wear a wide-brimmed hat, sunglasses, and long sleeves. If you want a healthy glow, get one from a bottle. Rubbing on a tanning cream is safer than exposing your skin to the sun.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Lung cancer - chemotherapy treatment</strong><p>Treatment for lung cancer depends on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. Chemotherapy is a form of treatment for lung cancer which may cure, shrink or keep the cancer from spreading.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Breast cancer</strong><p>Of all the different types of cancers, breast cancer is one of the most talked about, and with good reason. One out of every eight women will develop breast cancer sometime in their life. That's why every woman should be thinking about how to protect herself from this disease. Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the breast. Usually, it begins in the tubes that transport milk from the breast to the nipple. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the breast or body, it's called invasive breast cancer. Some breast cancers are more aggressive, growing more quickly than others. Although women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer, men can also get the disease because they do have breast tissue. You're more likely to get breast cancer if you're over 50, you started your periods before age 12, or you have a close family member with the disease. Drinking more than a couple of glasses of alcohol a day and using hormone replacement therapy for several years also may increase your risk. The telltale sign of breast cancer is a lump in your breast or armpit. You may also notice a change in the shape, size, or texture of your breast, or have fluid coming from your nipple when you're not breastfeeding. If you notice any changes in your breasts, call your doctor. You'll probably need to have an imaging scan, such as a mammogram, MRI, or ultrasound. A piece of tissue may be removed from your breast, called a biopsy. With these tests, your doctor can tell whether you have breast cancer, and if so, determine whether or not it has spread. So, how do we treat breast cancer? That really depends on the type of cancer, and how quickly it's spreading. Your doctor may recommend that you have the cancer removed with surgery. Sometimes it's enough just to remove the lump. That's called a lumpectomy. In other cases, the doctor will need to remove the entire breast to get rid of all the cancer or prevent it from coming back. That's called a mastectomy. Other treatments for breast cancer include chemotherapy, medicines that kill cancer cells, and radiation therapy, which uses energy to destroy cancer. Women whose cancer is fueled by the hormone estrogen may receive hormone therapy to block the effects of estrogen on their cancer. Today's breast cancer treatments are better than ever. Many women who have breast cancer go on to live long, healthy lives. The outlook really depends on how fast the tumor is growing, and how far it has spread. That's why it's so important to report any changes in your breasts to your doctor as soon as you notice them. Women who are at an especially high risk for breast cancer because of their family history can talk to their doctor about taking medicine or even having surgery to reduce their risk.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Ovarian cancer metastasis</strong><p>A malignant neoplasm (abnormal growth) located on the ovaries.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Melanoma</strong><p>You've noticed a mole, sore, or growth on your skin that doesn't look right. It might be a melanoma and time to see a doctor. Melanoma is skin cancer caused by changes in cells called melanocytes. These cells make a skin pigment called melanin. Melanin's what gives you your skin and hair color. Melanoma can appear on normal skin, or it may begin as a mole or other area that has changed in appearance. Some moles you have when you're born can develop into melanoma. There are four types, superficial spreading melanoma is the most common. It's usually flat and irregular in shape and color, with different shades of black and brown. It's most common in Caucasians. Nodular melanoma usually starts as a raised area that is dark blackish-blue or maybe bluish-red. Lentigo melanoma usually occurs in older adults. It's more common on sun-damaged skin on your face, neck, and arms. It's usually large, flat, and tan, with areas of brown. Lastly, acral lentigenous melanoma is the least common form. It usually occurs on your palms, soles, or under your nails. And it's more common in African-Americans. The risk of developing melanoma increases with age, but it is often also seen in young people. You are more likely to get melanoma if you have fair skin, blue or green eyes, or red or blond hair. People who live in sunny climates or at high altitudes are also at risk. As are people who spend a lot of time in the sun, or had one or more blistering sunburns during childhood, or use tanning devices. So, how do you know you have melanoma? You may have a mole, sore, lump, or growth on your skin that just doesn't look right. You may notice a sore or growth that bleeds or changes color. One half of the growth may be different from the other. The edges of the growth may be irregular. The color of the growth may change from one area to another. The spot may be larger than 6mm in diameter, about the size of a pencil eraser. The mole may keep changing in appearance. So, what do you do about melanoma? To treat melanoma successfully, you have to recognize the symptoms early. Make sure somebody sees all of your skin at least once a year and pay attention to your own skin. Call your doctor if you notice anything unusual. Your doctor will examine your skin for size, shape, color, and texture of any suspicious areas. If your doctor thinks you may have skin cancer, you'll have a piece of skin removed and sent to a laboratory for testing. This is called a biopsy. You may also have a lymph node biopsy to see if the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. If you are diagnosed with melanoma, you may have other tests to see if the cancer has spread further. You will need surgery if you have melanoma. The doctor will remove the skin cancer and some of the surrounding tissue. If the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes they will also be removed. After surgery, you may need medicine called interferon. If the cancer has spread to organs, it may not be able to be cured. Treatment then might focus on shrinking the cancer and making you as comfortable as possible. You may need chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation treatment, and more surgery. Caught early, some of the types of melanoma can be cured. Melanoma that is very deep or has already spread to lymph nodes is more likely to return after treatment. And the odds are even worse if it has spread farther to other organs. If you have melanoma and recovered, it's important you continue to examine your body for any unusual changes because the cancer may return many years later. One more reason that the earlier you catch it the better.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Bladder biopsy</strong><p>A bladder biopsy is performed if abnormalities of the bladder are found, or if a tumor is grossly visible. During the biopsy a small portion of tissue is removed and sent to the laboratory for analysis.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Cervical cancer</strong><p>Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. Luckily, it's much less common in the United States due to women receiving recommended routine Pap smears, the test designed to find cervical cancer sometimes even before abnormal cells turn to cancer. Cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of the cervix, the lower portion of the uterus. There are two types of cells on the surface of the cervix, squamous and columnar. Most cervical cancers come from these squamous cells. The cancer usually starts very slowly as a condition called dysplasia. This precancerous condition can be detected by Pap smear and is 100% treatable. Undetected, precancerous changes can develop into cervical cancer and spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. It can take years for these precancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer. However, patients with cervical cancer do not usually have problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread. Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms of advanced cancer may include back pain, bone fractures, fatigue, heavy vaginal bleeding, urine leakage, leg pain, loss of appetite, and pelvic pain. If after having a Pap smear, the doctor finds abnormal changes on the cervix, a colposcopy can be ordered. Using a light and a low-powered microscope, the doctor will view the cervix under magnification. The doctor may remove pieces of tissue, called a biopsy, and send the sample to a laboratory for testing. If the woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer, the doctor will order more tests to determine how far the cancer has spread. This is called Staging. Treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer, the size and shape of the tumor, the woman's age and general health, and her desire to have children in the future. Early cervical cancer can be treated with surgery just to remove abnormal tissue, freeze abnormal cells, or burn abnormal tissue. Treatment for more advanced cervical cancer may include radical hysterectomy, removal of the uterus and much of the surrounding tissue, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina. Radiation may be used to treat cancer that has spread beyond the pelvis, or if cancer returns. The woman may also have chemotherapy to kill cancer cells. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by human papilloma virus, or HPV. This common virus is spread through sexual intercourse. HPV vaccines can prevent infection. Practicing safe sex also reduces the risk of getting HPV. But, keep in mind most women diagnosed with cervical cancer have not had their regular Pap smears. Because Pap smears can find precancerous growths that are 100% treatable, it's very important for women to get Pap smears at regular intervals.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Colonoscopy</strong><p>There are 3 basic tests for colon cancer; a stool test (to check for blood), sigmoidoscopy (inspection of the lower colon), and colonoscopy (inspection of the entire colon). All 3 are effective in catching cancers in the early stages, when treatment is most beneficial.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Colon cancer</strong><p>Colon cancer may not be talked about as often as other cancers, like breast cancer, prostate or lung cancer, but it's actually one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. It is for this reason it's very important to stay on top of your colon health. The colon is your large intestine, the long, upside-down U-shaped tube that is toward the end of the line for getting rid of waste in your body. Colon cancer can start in the lining of the intestine, or at the end of it, called the rectum. Let's try to better understand Colon cancer. You're more likely to get the disease if you're over age 60, especially if you have a family history of colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, or obesity. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol has also been found to increase your risk of getting colon cancer. Although the data are not consistent, eating red meat or processed meats may increase the risks of colon cancer as well. Lean, unprocessed red meat, may be associated with less risk. If you have symptoms, they may include pain in your abdomen, blood in your stool, weight loss, or diarrhea. But hopefully, you'll get diagnosed before you have any symptoms, during a regular screening test like a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. These tests use special instruments to see inside your colon and rectum to look for any cancerous or pre-cancerous growths, called polyps. If your doctor discovers that you do have colon cancer, unfortunately, you'll need to have a few more tests, including scans of your abdomen to find out whether the cancer has spread, and if so, where in your body it's located. So, how is colon cancer treated? That really depends on how aggressive your cancer is and how far it's spread, but usually colon cancer is removed with surgery, or killed with chemotherapy or radiation. You may get one, or a combination, of these treatments. Colon cancer is one of the more treatable cancers. You can be cured, especially if you catch it early. Spotting colon cancer when it's still treatable is up to you. If you're over age 45, you need to get screened. And, regular physical activity and eating at least some fruits and vegetables daily, perhaps with unprocessed wheat bran, can help prevent it. If you want to prevent colon cancer, you'll also want to avoid processed and charred red meats, and smoking, and excess calories, and alcohol.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Pap smears and cervical cancer</strong><p>An instrument called a speculum holds the walls of the vagina open so that the cervix may be viewed and a swab of cells obtained for analysis.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Prostate cancer</strong><p>As men get older, they have a lot of new worries to deal with, from hair loss, weight gain, perhaps even erectile dysfunction. In addition, cancer is one of the biggest concerns that older men face, especially prostate cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death in men over 75. Younger men may not be very familiar with their prostate, the walnut-shaped gland that wraps around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body. But as they get older, the prostate can start to cause problems. Men over the age of 60 are at increased risk for prostate cancer, especially if they're of African descent, they have a father or brother with the disease, or they eat a lot of burgers and processed meats in their daily diet. It can be hard to pinpoint prostate cancer symptoms, because they usually start late in the disease and they can mimic symptoms of a benign, enlarged prostate, which is also more common in older men. Symptoms like a slow urine stream, dribbling, blood in the urine, or straining while urinating can be signs of either condition. An enlarged prostate can also confuse the results of a PSA test, which is used to screen for prostate cancer. So, if your doctor thinks you might have prostate cancer, you may need a biopsy, which is a procedure that removes a small piece of prostate tissue and sends it to the lab to check for cancer. Then a scoring system called the Gleason grade is used to tell how fast your cancer might spread. Your Gleason grade will help decide what treatment you get. Early-stage prostate cancers that haven't spread are often removed with surgery, and then treated with radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Prostate cancer surgery may affect your ability to have sex and control urine, so talk about these issues with your doctor before you have the procedure. Because prostate cancer tends to grow very slowly, your doctor may want to just monitor you with PSA tests and biopsies, and avoid treatment unless the cancer starts to spread. Prostate cancer that has spread is usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. If your doctor discovers prostate cancer in its early stages, before it spreads, it's pretty easy to treat, and even cure. Treatments can also slow down prostate cancer that's spread, and extend your survival. Before you have to deal with a prostate cancer diagnosis, ask your doctor for ways to prevent and screen for the disease. Eating a healthy, low-fat diet that's high in healthy omega-3 fatty acids might help lower your risk. There are also drugs called finasteride and dutasteride that are used in some men to prevent prostate cancer. Talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of these drugs, as well as the possible benefits and risks of having your PSA levels tested.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Prostate cancer</strong><p>Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United States. Prostate cancer forms in the prostate gland, and can sometimes be felt on digital rectal examination. This is one of the purposes of the digital rectal exam.</p></div>
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