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Generalized anxiety disorder - self-care

GAD - self-care; Anxiety - self-care; Anxiety disorder - self-care

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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental condition in which you're frequently worried or anxious about many things. Your anxiety may seem out of control and get in the way of everyday activities.

The right treatment can often improve GAD. You and your health care provider should make a treatment plan that could include talk therapy (psychotherapy), taking medicine, or both.

Taking Medicine

Your provider may prescribe one or more medicines, including:

  • An antidepressant, which can help with anxiety and depression. This kind of medicine may take weeks or months to start working. It is a safe medium- to long-term treatment for GAD.
  • A benzodiazepine, which acts faster than an antidepressant to control anxiety. However, benzodiazepines can become less effective and habit forming over time. Your provider may prescribe a benzodiazepine to help your anxiety while you wait for the antidepressant to work.

When taking medicine for GAD:

  • Keep your provider informed about your symptoms. If a medicine isn't controlling symptoms, its dosage may need to be changed, or you may need to try a new medicine instead.
  • Do not change the dosage or stop taking the medicine without talking to your provider.
  • Take medicine at set times. For example, take it every day at breakfast. Check with your provider about the best time to take your medicine.
  • Ask your provider about side effects and what to do if they occur.

Therapy

Talk therapy takes place with a trained therapist. It helps you learn ways of managing and reducing your anxiety. Some forms of talk therapy can help you understand what causes your anxiety. This allows you to gain better control over it.

Many types of talk therapy may be helpful for GAD. One common and effective talk therapy is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT can help you understand the relationship between your thoughts, your behaviors, and your symptoms. Often, CBT involves a set number of visits. During CBT you can learn how to:

  • Understand and gain control of distorted views of stressors, such as other people's behavior or life events.
  • Recognize and replace panic-causing thoughts to help you feel more in control.
  • Manage stress and relax when symptoms occur.
  • Avoid thinking that minor problems will develop into terrible ones.

Your provider can discuss talk therapy options with you. Then you can decide together if it is right for you.

Other Ways to Manage Your Anxiety

Taking medicine and going to talk therapy can get you started on the road to feeling better. Taking care of your body and relationships can help improve your condition. Here are some helpful tips:

  • Get enough sleep.
  • Eat healthy foods.
  • Keep a regular daily schedule.
  • Get out of the house every day.
  • Exercise every day. Even a little bit of exercise, such as a 15-minute walk, can help.
  • Stay away from alcohol and street drugs.
  • Talk with family or friends when you feel nervous or frightened.
  • Find out about different types of group activities you can join.

When to Call the Doctor

Call your provider if you:

  • Find it hard to control your anxiety
  • Do not sleep well
  • Feel sad or feel like you want to hurt yourself
  • Have physical symptoms from your anxiety

References

American Psychiatric Association. Anxiety disorders: what are anxiety disorders? www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/anxiety-disorders/what-are-anxiety-disorders. Updated June 2021. Accessed July 30, 2021.

American Psychiatric Association. Generalized anxiety disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013:222-226.

Dattilo NC, Goddard AW. Generalized anxiety disorder. In: Kellerman RD, Rakel DP, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2021. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier 2021: 816-819.

Glass SP, Pollack M H, Otto MW, Wittmann CW, Rosenbaum JF. Anxious patients. In: Stern TA, Freudenreich O, Smith FA, Fricchione GL, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of General Hospital Psychiatry. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 13.

Lee R. Anxiety. In: Rakel D, ed. Integrative Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 6.

Wecker L, Sanchez DL, Currier GW. Drug therapy for depression and anxiety. In: Wecker L, Taylor DA, Theobald RJ, eds. Brody's Human Pharmacology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 17.

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        Review Date: 5/14/2021

        Reviewed By: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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