Basic metabolic panelSMAC7; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-7; SMA7; Metabolic panel 7; CHEM-7
The basic metabolic panel is a group of blood tests that provides information about your body's metabolism.
Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as:BreathingCirculating bloodControlling bo...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
How the Test is Performed
A blood sample is needed. Most of the time, blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand.
Drawn from a vein
Venipuncture is the collection of blood from a vein. It is most often done for laboratory testing.Read Article Now Book Mark Article
How to Prepare for the Test
Your health care provider may ask you to not eat or drink for 8 hours before the test.
How the Test will Feel
You may feel slight pain or a sting when the needle is inserted. You may also feel some throbbing at the site after the blood is drawn.
Why the Test is Performed
This test is done to evaluate:
- Kidney function
- Blood acid/base balance
- Sodium and potassium levels
- Blood sugar levels
- Blood calcium level
The basic metabolic panel typically measures these blood chemicals. The following are normal ranges for the substances tested:
- BUN: 6 to 20 mg/dL (2.14 to 7.14 mmol/L)
BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen. Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down. A test can be done to measure the amount of urea nitrogen ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- CO2 (carbon dioxide): 23 to 29 mmol/L
CO2 (carbon dioxide)
CO2 is carbon dioxide. This article discusses the laboratory test to measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Creatinine: 0.8 to 1.2 mg/dL (70.72 to 106.08 micromol/L)
The creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys are working. Creatinine can ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Glucose: 64 to 100 mg/dL (3.55 to 5.55 mmol/L)
A blood sugar test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Serum chloride: 96 to 106 mmol/L
Chloride is a type of electrolyte. It works with other electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These substances help keep...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Serum potassium: 3.7 to 5.2 mEq/L (3.7 to 5.2 mmol/L)
This test measures the amount of potassium in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood. Potassium (K+) helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also ...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Serum sodium: 136 to 144 mEq/L (136 to 144 mmol/L)
The sodium blood test measures the concentration of sodium in the blood. Sodium can also be measured using a urine test.Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Serum calcium: 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL (2.13 to 2.55 millimol/L)
Key to abbreviations:
- L = liter
- dL = deciliter = 0.1 liter
- mg = milligram
- mmol = millimole
- mEq = milliequivalents
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Abnormal results can be due to a variety of different medical conditions, including kidney failure, breathing problems, diabetes or diabetes-related complications, and medicine side effects. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your results from each test.
Cohn SI. Preoperative evaluation. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 403.
Oh MS, Briefel G, Pincus MR. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 15.
Review Date: 5/1/2021
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.