Scrotal swellingSwelling of the scrotum; Testicular enlargement
Scrotal swelling is abnormal enlargement of the scrotum. This is the name for the sac surrounding the testicles.
Scrotal swelling can occur in males at any age. The swelling can be on one or both sides, and there may be pain. The testicles and penis may or may not be involved.
In testicular torsion, the testicle becomes twisted in the scrotum and loses its blood supply. It is a serious emergency. If this twisting is not relieved quickly, the testicle may be permanently and completely damaged. This condition is extremely painful. Call 911 or the local emergency number, or see your health care provider immediately. Losing blood supply for just a few hours can cause tissue death and the loss of a testicle.
Testicular torsion is the twisting of the spermatic cord, which supports the testes in the scrotum. When this occurs, blood supply is cut off to the...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
The scrotum is a part of a male's body that is located below the penis. The scrotum is the sac (pouch) that contains the testes, epididymis, and the...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
Causes of scrotal swelling include:
- Certain medical treatments
- Congestive heart failure
Epididymitis is swelling (inflammation) of the tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens. The tube is called the epididymis.Read Article Now Book Mark Article
A hernia is a sac formed by the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum). The sac comes through a hole or weak area in the strong layer of the be...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum.Read Article Now Book Mark Article
Orchitis is swelling (inflammation) of one or both of the testicles.Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Surgery in the genital area
- Testicular torsion
A varicocele is the swelling of the veins inside the scrotum. These veins are found along the cord that holds up a man's testicles (spermatic cord)....Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Testicular cancer
- Fluid retention
Things you can do to help this problem include:
- Apply ice packs to the scrotum for the first 24 hours, followed by sitz baths to decrease swelling. Don’t apply the ice directly to the scrotum, rather place it in a towel or washcloth and apply that.
A sitz bath is a warm water bath used for healing or cleansing purposes. You sit in the bath. The water covers only your hips and buttocks. The wa...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
- Elevate scrotum by placing a rolled up towel between your legs. It will help relieve pain and swelling.
- Wear a loose-fitting athletic supporter for daily activities.
- Avoid excessive activity until the swelling disappears.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Contact your provider if:
- You notice any unexplained scrotal swelling.
- The swelling is painful.
You have a testicle lump.
A testicle lump is swelling or a growth (mass) in one or both testicles.Read Article Now Book Mark Article
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
Your provider will perform a physical exam and take a medical history, which may include the following questions:
- When did the swelling develop? Did it come on suddenly? Is it getting worse?
- How big is the swelling (try to describe in terms such as "twice normal size" or "the size of a golf ball")?
- Does the swelling appear to be fluid? Can you feel tissue in the swollen area?
- Is the swelling in just one part of the scrotum or in the entire scrotum?
- Is the swelling the same on both sides (sometimes a swollen scrotum is actually an enlarged testicle, a testicular lump, or a swollen duct)?
- Have you had surgery, injury, or trauma in the genital area?
- Have you had a recent genital infection?
- Does the swelling go down after you rest in bed?
- Do you have any other symptoms?
- Is there any pain in the area around the scrotum?
The physical exam will include a detailed exam of the scrotum, testicles, and penis. The combination of a physical exam and history will determine whether you need any tests.
Your provider may prescribe antibiotics and pain medicines, or recommend surgery. A scrotal ultrasound may be done to find where the swelling is occurring.
Scrotal ultrasound is an imaging test that looks at the scrotum. The scrotum is the flesh-covered sac that hangs between the legs at the base of the...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
Elder JS. Disorders and anomalies of the scrotal contents. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 560.
Germann CA. Urologic disorders. In: Walls RM, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 85.
Kryger JV, Jarosz SL. Acute and chronic scrotal swelling. In: Kliegman RM, Toth H, Bordini BJ, Basel D, eds. Nelson Pediatric Symptom-Based Diagnosis. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 24.
Palmer LS, Palmer JS. Management of abnormalities of the external genitalia in boys. In: Partin AW, Domochowski RR, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh-Wein Urology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 44.
Male reproductive anatomy - illustration
The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the testicles (testes), the epididymis, the seminal vesicles, and the prostate.
Male reproductive anatomy
Review Date: 1/1/2023
Reviewed By: Kelly L. Stratton, MD, FACS, Associate Professor, Department of Urology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.