Multiple system atrophy - cerebellar subtypeMSA-C; Cerebellar multiple system atrophy; Olivopontocerebellar atrophy; OPCA; Olivopontocerebellar degeneration
Multiple system atrophy - cerebellar subtype (MSA-C) is a rare disease that causes areas deep in the brain, just above the spinal cord, to shrink (atrophy). MSA-C used to be known as olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA).
MSA-C can be passed down through families (inherited form). It can also affect people without a known family history (sporadic form).
Researchers have identified certain genes that are involved in the inherited form of this condition.
The cause of MSA-C in people with the sporadic form is not known. The disease slowly gets worse (is progressive).
MSA-C is slightly more common in men than in women. The average age of onset is 54 years old.
Symptoms of MSA-C tend to start at a younger age in people with the inherited form. The main symptom is clumsiness (ataxia) that slowly gets worse. There may also be problems with balance, slurring of speech, and difficulty walking.
Uncoordinated movement is due to a muscle control problem that causes an inability to coordinate movements. It leads to a jerky, unsteady, to-and-fr...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
Other symptoms may include:
- Abnormal eye movements
- Abnormal movements
- Bowel or bladder problems
- Difficulty swallowing
- Cold hands and feet
- Lightheadedness when standing
- Headache while standing that is relieved by lying down
- Muscle stiffness or rigidity, spasms, tremor
- Nerve damage (neuropathy)
- Problems in speaking and sleeping due to spasms of the vocal cords
- Sexual function problems
- Abnormal sweating
Exams and Tests
A thorough medical and nervous system examination, as well as a symptom review and family history are needed to make the diagnosis.
There are genetic tests to look for the causes of some forms of the disorder. But, no specific test is available in many cases. An MRI of the brain may show changes in the size of affected brain structures, especially as the disease gets worse. But it is possible to have the disorder and have a normal MRI.
MRI of the brain
A head MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the brain and surrounding...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
Other tests such as positron emission tomography (PET) may be done to rule out other conditions. These may include swallowing studies to see if a person can safely swallow food and liquid.
Positron emission tomography (PET)
A positron emission tomography scan is a type of imaging test. It uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body. A po...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
There is no specific treatment or cure for MSA-C. The aim is to treat the symptoms and prevent complications. This may include:
- Tremor medicines, such as those for Parkinson disease
- Speech, occupational and physical therapy
- Ways to prevent choking
- Walking aids to help with balance and prevent falls
The following groups can provide resources and support for people with MSA-C:
- Defeat MSA Alliance -- defeatmsa.org/patient-programs/
- The MSA Coalition -- www.multiplesystematrophy.org/msa-resources/
MSA-C slowly gets worse, and there is no cure. The outlook is generally poor. But, it may be years before someone is very disabled.
Complications of MSA-C include:
- Infection from inhaling food into the lungs (aspiration pneumonia)
- Injury from falls
- Nutrition problems due to difficulty swallowing
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have any symptoms of MSA-C. You will need to be seen by a neurologist. This is a doctor who treats nervous system problems.
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Gilman S, Wenning GK, Low PA, et al. Second consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. Neurology. 2008;71(9):670-676. PMID: 18725592 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18725592/.
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Walsh RR, Krismer F, Galpern WR, et al. Recommendations of the global multiple system atrophy research roadmap meeting. Neurology. 2018;90(2):74-82. PMID: 29237794 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29237794/.
Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system - illustration
The central nervous system comprises the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.
Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Review Date: 6/23/2020
Reviewed By: Amit M. Shelat, DO, FACP, FAAN, Attending Neurologist and Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.