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Managing migraines at home

Headache - migraine - self-care; Vascular headache - self-care

A migraine is a common type of headache. It may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light. Most people feel a throbbing pain on only one side of their head during a migraine.

Some people who get migraines have warning signs, called an aura, before the actual headache begins. An aura is a group of symptoms that includes vision changes. An aura is a warning sign that a bad headache is coming.

Migraine headaches can be triggered by certain foods. The most common are:

  • Any processed, fermented, pickled, or marinated foods, as well as foods that contain monosodium glutamate (MSG)
  • Baked goods, chocolate, nuts, and dairy products
  • Fruits (such as avocado, banana, and citrus fruit)
  • Meats containing sodium nitrates, such as bacon, hot dogs, salami, and cured meats
  • Red wine, aged cheese, smoked fish, chicken liver, figs, and certain beans

Alcohol, stress, hormonal changes, skipping meals, lack of sleep, certain odors or perfumes, loud noises or bright lights, exercise, and cigarette smoking may also trigger a migraine.

When You Get a Migraine

Try to treat your symptoms right away. This may help make the headache less severe. When migraine symptoms begin:

  • Drink water to avoid dehydration, especially if you have vomited
  • Rest in a quiet, darkened room
  • Place a cool cloth on your head

Over-the-counter pain medicines, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or aspirin, are often helpful when your migraine is mild.

Your health care provider may have prescribed medicines to stop a migraine. These drugs come in different forms. They may come as a nasal spray, rectal suppository, or injection instead of pills. Other medicines can treat nausea and vomiting.

Follow your provider's instructions about how to take all of your medicines. Rebound headaches are headaches that keep coming back. They can occur from overuse of pain medicine. If you take pain medicine more than 3 days a week on a regular basis, you can develop rebound headaches.

Preventing Migraine Headaches

A headache diary can help you identify your headache triggers. When you get a headache, write down:

  • Day and time the pain began
  • What you ate and drank over the past 24 hours
  • How much you slept
  • What you were doing and where you were right before the pain started
  • How long the headache lasted and what made it stop

Review your diary with your provider to identify triggers or a pattern to your headaches. This can help you and your provider create a treatment plan. Knowing your triggers can help you avoid them.

Lifestyle changes that may help include:

  • Avoid triggers that seem to bring on a migraine headache.
  • Get regular sleep and exercise.
  • Slowly decrease the amount of caffeine you drink every day.
  • Learn and practice stress management. Some people find relaxation exercises and meditation helpful.

If you have frequent migraines, your provider may prescribe medicine to reduce the number of them. You need to take this medicine every day for it to be effective. Your provider may have you try more than one drug before deciding which works best for you.

When to Call the Doctor

Call 911 if:

  • You are experiencing "the worst headache of your life."
  • You have speech, vision, or movement problems or loss of balance, especially if you have not had these symptoms with a headache before.
  • A headache starts suddenly.

Schedule an appointment or call your provider if:

  • Your headache patterns or pain changes.
  • Treatments that once worked are no longer help.
  • You have side effects from your medicine.
  • You are pregnant or could become pregnant. Some medicines should not be taken during pregnancy.
  • You need to take pain medicines more than 3 days a week.
  • You are taking birth control pills and have migraine headaches.
  • Your headaches are more severe when lying down.

References

Becker WJ. Acute migraine treatment in adults. Headache. 2015;55(6):778-793. PMID: 25877672 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25877672.

Garza I, Schwedt TJ, Robertson CE, Smith JH. Headache and other craniofacial pain. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 103.

Marmura MJ, Silberstein SD, Schwedt TJ. The acute treatment of migraine in adults: the American Headache Society evidence assessment of migraine pharmacotherapies. Headache. 2015;55(1):3-20. PMID: 25600718 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25600718.

Silberstein SD. Headache management. In: Benzon HT, Rathmell JP, We CL, Turk DC, Argoff CE, Hurley RW, eds. Practical Management of Pain. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 30.

  • Migraine cause

    Migraine cause - illustration

    One theory of the cause of migraine is a central nervous system (CNS) disorder. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. In migraine, various stimuli may cause a series of neurologic and biochemical events which affect the brain's vascular system.

    Migraine cause

    illustration

  • CT scan of the brain

    CT scan of the brain - illustration

    A CT or CAT scan (computed tomography) is a much more sensitive imaging technique than X-ray, allowing high definition not only of the bony structures, but of the soft tissues. Clear images of organs such as the brain, muscles, joint structures, veins and arteries, as well as anomalies like tumors and hemorrhages may be obtained with or without the injection of contrasting dye.

    CT scan of the brain

    illustration

  • Migraine headache

    Migraine headache - illustration

    Symptoms of a migraine attack may include heightened sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, auras (loss of vision in one eye or tunnel vision), difficulty of speech and intense pain predominating on one side of the head.

    Migraine headache

    illustration

    • Migraine cause

      Migraine cause - illustration

      One theory of the cause of migraine is a central nervous system (CNS) disorder. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. In migraine, various stimuli may cause a series of neurologic and biochemical events which affect the brain's vascular system.

      Migraine cause

      illustration

    • CT scan of the brain

      CT scan of the brain - illustration

      A CT or CAT scan (computed tomography) is a much more sensitive imaging technique than X-ray, allowing high definition not only of the bony structures, but of the soft tissues. Clear images of organs such as the brain, muscles, joint structures, veins and arteries, as well as anomalies like tumors and hemorrhages may be obtained with or without the injection of contrasting dye.

      CT scan of the brain

      illustration

    • Migraine headache

      Migraine headache - illustration

      Symptoms of a migraine attack may include heightened sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, auras (loss of vision in one eye or tunnel vision), difficulty of speech and intense pain predominating on one side of the head.

      Migraine headache

      illustration

    Self Care

     

     

    Review Date: 11/22/2017

    Reviewed By: Luc Jasmin, MD, PhD, FRCS (C), FACS, Department of Surgery at Providence Medical Center, Medford OR; Department of Surgery at Ashland Community Hospital, Ashland OR; Department of Maxillofacial Surgery at UCSF, San Francisco CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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