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Increased head circumference

Macrocephaly

Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the widest part of the skull is larger than expected for the child's age and background.

Considerations

A newborn's head is usually about 2 cm larger than the chest size. Between 6 months and 2 years, both measurements are about equal. After 2 years, the chest size becomes larger than the head.

Measurements over time that show an increased rate of head growth often provide more valuable information than a single measurement that is larger than expected.

Increased pressure inside the head (increased intracranial pressure) often occurs with increased head circumference. Symptoms of this condition include:

  • Eyes moving downward
  • Irritability
  • Vomiting

Causes

Increased head size may be from any of the following:

  • Benign familial macrocephaly (family tendency toward large head size)
  • Canavan disease (condition that affects how the body breaks down and uses a protein called aspartic acid)
  • Hydrocephalus (buildup of fluid inside the skull that leads to brain swelling)
  • Bleeding inside the skull
  • Disease in which the body is unable break down long chains of sugar molecules (Hurler or Morquio syndrome)

When to Contact a Medical Professional

The health care provider usually finds an increased head size in a baby during a routine well-baby exam.

For more information on testing, diagnostic, surgical and treatment services available at Huron Regional Medical Center, click here. The medical staff at HRMC includes full-time primary and specialty physicians to care for your whole family, as well as visiting specialists who see patients in HRMC'S Specialty Clinic, HRMC Physicians Clinic and other local clinics. Learn more by visiting our online Find-a-Doc directory.

What to Expect at Your Office Visit

A careful physical exam will be done. Other milestones for growth and development will be checked.

In some cases, a single measurement is enough to confirm that there is a size increase that needs to be tested further. More often, repeated measurements of the head circumference over time are needed to confirm that the head circumference is increased and the problem is getting worse.

Diagnostic tests that may be ordered include:

References

Robinson S, Cohen AR. Disorders in head shape and size. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 64.

  • Skull of a newborn

    Skull of a newborn - illustration

    The sutures or anatomical lines where the bony plates of the skull join together can be easily felt in the newborn infant. The diamond shaped space on the top of the skull and the smaller space further to the back are often referred to as the soft spot in young infants.

    Skull of a newborn

    illustration

    • Skull of a newborn

      Skull of a newborn - illustration

      The sutures or anatomical lines where the bony plates of the skull join together can be easily felt in the newborn infant. The diamond shaped space on the top of the skull and the smaller space further to the back are often referred to as the soft spot in young infants.

      Skull of a newborn

      illustration


     

    Review Date: 4/24/2017

    Reviewed By: Liora C. Adler, MD, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital, Hollywood, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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