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Sweating

Perspiration

Sweating is the release of liquid from the body's sweat glands. This liquid contains salt. This process is also called perspiration.

Sweating helps your body stay cool. Sweat is commonly found under the arms, on the feet, and on the palms of the hands.

Considerations

The amount you sweat depends on how many sweat glands you have.

A person is born with about 2 to 4 million sweat glands, which begin to become fully active during puberty. Men's sweat glands tend to be more active.

Sweating is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. This is the part of the nervous system that is not under your control. Sweating is the body's natural way of regulating temperature.

Things that can make you sweat more include:

  • Hot weather
  • Exercise
  • Situations that make you nervous, angry, embarrassed, or afraid

Heavy sweating may also be a symptom of menopause (also called a "hot flash").

Causes

Causes may include:

  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Cancer
  • Complex regional pain syndrome
  • Emotional or stressful situations (anxiety)
  • Essential hyperhidrosis
  • Exercise
  • Fever
  • Infection
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
  • Medicines, such as thyroid hormone, morphine, drugs to reduce fever, and medicines to treat mental disorders
  • Menopause
  • Spicy foods (known as "gustatory sweating")
  • Warm temperatures
  • Withdrawal from alcohol, sedatives, or narcotic painkillers

Home Care

After sweating a lot, you should:

  • Drink plenty of fluids (water, or fluids containing electrolytes such as sports drinks) to replace sweat.
  • Lower room temperature a little bit to prevent more sweating.
  • Wash your face and body if the salt from sweat has dried on your skin.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Contact your health care provider if sweating occurs with:

  • Chest pain
  • Fever
  • Rapid, pounding heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weight loss

These symptoms may indicate a problem, such as overactive thyroid or an infection.

Also call your provider if:

  • You sweat a lot or sweating lasts for a long time or cannot be explained.
  • Sweating occurs with or is followed by chest pain or pressure.
  • You lose weight from sweating or often sweat during sleep.

References

Chelimsky T, Chelimsky G. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 108.

Cheshire WP. Autonomic disorders and their management. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 418.

McGrath JA. The structure and function of skin. In: Calonje E, Bren T, Lazar AJ, Billings SD, eds. McKee's Pathology of the Skin. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 1.

  • Skin layers

    Skin layers - illustration

    The skin is the largest organ of the body. The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection. It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature. The skin contains secretions that can kill bacteria and the pigment melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells. Another important function of the skin is body temperature regulation. When the skin is exposed to a cold temperature, the blood vessels in the dermis constrict. This allows the blood which is warm, to bypass the skin. The skin then becomes the temperature of the cold it is exposed to. Body heat is conserved since the blood vessels are not diverting heat to the skin anymore. Among its many functions the skin is an incredible organ always protecting the body from external agents.

    Skin layers

    illustration

    • Skin layers

      Skin layers - illustration

      The skin is the largest organ of the body. The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection. It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature. The skin contains secretions that can kill bacteria and the pigment melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells. Another important function of the skin is body temperature regulation. When the skin is exposed to a cold temperature, the blood vessels in the dermis constrict. This allows the blood which is warm, to bypass the skin. The skin then becomes the temperature of the cold it is exposed to. Body heat is conserved since the blood vessels are not diverting heat to the skin anymore. Among its many functions the skin is an incredible organ always protecting the body from external agents.

      Skin layers

      illustration

     

    Review Date: 4/26/2019

    Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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