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Sodium in diet

Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet

Sodium is an element that the body needs to work properly. Salt contains sodium.

Function

The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work properly.

Food Sources

Sodium occurs naturally in most foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. Milk, beets, and celery also naturally contain sodium. Drinking water also contains sodium, but the amount depends on the source.

Sodium is also added to many food products. Some of these added forms are monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate. These are in items such as Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, onion salt, garlic salt, and bouillon cubes.

Processed meats like bacon, sausage, and ham, and canned soups and vegetables also contain added sodium. Fast foods are generally very high in sodium.

Side Effects

Too much sodium in the diet may lead to:

  • High blood pressure in some people
  • A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, or kidney disease

Recommendations

Sodium in the diet (called dietary sodium) is measured in milligrams (mg). Table salt is 40% sodium. One teaspoon (5 milliliters) of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium.

Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day. Adults with high blood pressure should have no more than 1,500 mg per day. Those with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease may need much lower amounts.

There are no specific sodium restrictions for infants, children, and teens, however a certain levels of daily adequate intake for healthy growth have been established. These include:

  • Infants younger than 6 months: 120 mg
  • Infants age 6 to 12 months: 370 mg
  • Children ages 1 to 3 years: 1,000 mg
  • Children ages 4 to 8 years: 1,200 mg
  • Children and teens ages 9 to 18 years: 1,500 mg

Eating habits and attitudes about food that are formed during childhood are likely to influence eating habits for life. For this reason, it is a good idea for children to avoid consuming too much sodium.

References

Appel LJ. Diet and blood pressure. In: Bakris GL, Sorrentino MJ, eds. Hypertension: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 21.

Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S76-S99. PMID: 24222015 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222015.

National Academies Press website. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Nutrition/DRI-Tables/9_Electrolytes_Water%20Summary.pdf?la=en. Accessed July 12, 2018.

  • Sodium content

    Sodium content - illustration

    Sodium is an element that the body needs to function properly to regulate blood pressure and blood volume. For individuals who are sodium-sensitive, an increased intake of sodium may contribute to high blood pressure. When watching the intake of sodium, read labels carefully to determine the total sodium content, be sure to note the serving size and number of servings per container. Canned, packaged, and frozen foods can be particularly high in sodium.

    Sodium content

    illustration

    • Sodium content

      Sodium content - illustration

      Sodium is an element that the body needs to function properly to regulate blood pressure and blood volume. For individuals who are sodium-sensitive, an increased intake of sodium may contribute to high blood pressure. When watching the intake of sodium, read labels carefully to determine the total sodium content, be sure to note the serving size and number of servings per container. Canned, packaged, and frozen foods can be particularly high in sodium.

      Sodium content

      illustration

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    Tests for Sodium in diet

     
     

    Review Date: 4/23/2018

    Reviewed By: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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