Twin-to-twin transfusion syndromeTTTS; Fetal transfusion syndrome
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a rare condition that occurs only in identical twins while they are in the womb.
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) occurs when the blood supply of one twin moves to the other through the shared placenta. The twin that loses the blood is called the donor twin. The twin that receives the blood is called the recipient twin.
Both infants may have problems, depending on how much blood is passed from one to the other. The donor twin may have too little blood, and the other may have too much blood.
Most of the time, the donor twin is smaller than the other twin at birth. The infant often has anemia, is dehydrated, and looks pale.
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Different type...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
The recipient twin is born larger, with redness to the skin, too much blood, and a higher blood pressure. The twin that gets too much blood may develop cardiac failure because of the high blood volume. The infant may also need medicine to strengthen heart function.
Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body efficiently. This causes symptom...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
The unequal size of identical twins is referred to as discordant twins.
Exams and Tests
This condition is most often diagnosed by ultrasound during pregnancy.
Ultrasound during pregnancy
A pregnancy ultrasound is an imaging test that uses sound waves to create a picture of how a baby is developing in the womb. It is also used to chec...Read Article Now Book Mark Article
After birth, the infants will receive the following tests:
- Blood clotting studies, including prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
- Comprehensive metabolic panel to determine electrolyte balance
- Complete blood count
- Chest x-ray
Treatment may require repeated amniocentesis during pregnancy. Fetal laser surgery may be done to stop the flow of blood from one twin to the other during pregnancy.
After birth, treatment depends on the infant's symptoms. The donor twin may need a blood transfusion to treat anemia.
The recipient twin may need to have the volume of body fluid reduced. This may involve an exchange transfusion.
The recipient twin may also need to take medicine to prevent heart failure.
If the twin-to-twin transfusion is mild, both babies often recover fully. Severe cases may result in the death of a twin.
Malone FD, D'alton ME. Multiple gestation: clinical characteristics and management. In: Resnik R, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene MF, Copel JA, Silver RM, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 40.
Obican SG, Odibo AO. Invasive fetal therapy. In: Resnik R, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene MF, Copel JA, Silver RM, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 37.
Unal ER , Newman RB. Multiple gestations. In: Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, et al, eds. Gabbe's Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 39.
Review Date: 7/13/2021
Reviewed By: John D. Jacobson, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.