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  • Psoriasis - Animation

    Psoriasis

    Animation

  • Psoriasis - Animation

    Psoriasis is a common skin condition that causes skin redness and irritation. Most people with psoriasis have thick, red skin with flaky, silver-white patches called scales. Psoriasis may affect you at any age, but it usually begins between the ages of 15 and 35. You can't spread this disorder to others, but it does seem to be passed down through families. We think it probably occurs when your immune system mistakes healthy cells for dangerous substances. Skin cells grow deep in your skin, normally rising to the surface about once a month. But, in people with psoriasis, this process occurs too fast, usually happening in only about 2 weeks, and dead skin cells build up on your skin's surface. Many factors can trigger psoriasis, or make it more difficult to treat, including bacterial or viral infections, dry air or skin, injuries to your skin, some medications, stress, too much or too little sunlight, and even too much alcohol. In general, psoriasis may be very bad in people who have a weakened immune system. Psoriasis can appear suddenly or it can appear slowly. Often, it goes away and then flares up again, time after time. If you have psoriasis, you'll probably have irritated patches of skin on your body, often on your elbows and knees. But it can show up anywhere on your body, even your scalp. The skin patches may be itchy, dry and covered with silver, flaky scales. They may be pink in color and raised and thick. So, what do you do about psoriasis?Well, your doctor will need to look at your skin to make a diagnosis. Sometimes the doctor will take a skin sample, or a biopsy, to rule out other possible problems. Your treatment will focus on controlling your symptoms and preventing infections. In general, you have three options: topical medications like lotions or creams, pills or injections that affect your whole body, and therapy that uses light to treat psoriasis. But most people tend to use creams or ointments they place directly on their skin. Psoriasis is a life-long condition you can control with treatment. It may go away for a long time and then suddenly return. Fortunately, with the right treatment, it usually does not affect your general physical health.

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus - Animation

    Systemic lupus erythematosus

    Animation

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus - Animation

    When your joints are sore and achy, you might assume you have arthritis. But if that joint pain strikes when you're still in your 30's, or even your 20's, it might be another condition entirely. You might have an autoimmune disease called systemic lupus erythematosus, or lupus, for short. An autoimmune disease means that your immune system, which normally serves as your body's first defense against infections, mistakenly attacks your own tissues. Imagine if you hit your hand over and over and over again. The skin would turn red and swell up, and it would probably hurt quite a bit. Well, the same kind thing happens inside your body when your immune system attacks your tissues. They swell up, and they hurt. Almost everyone with lupus has joint pain and swelling, but depending on what part of your body the lupus is attacking, you could have other symptoms too. If it's your skin, you might have a rash on your face and body. If lupus attacks your digestive tract, you might feel sick to your stomach. If it attacks your brain or nervous system, you may have numbness, tingling, vision problems, and headaches. So, how do you know that you have lupus?Your doctor will ask about your symptoms, listen to your heartbeat, and examine your nervous system. Doctors often use a test to check for antinuclear antibodies, the immune substances that attack your tissues. You'll likely also need other blood or urine tests, and perhaps an x-ray, CT, ultrasound or biopsy, depending on your symptoms. Taken together, your symptoms and the results of these tests can help your doctor determine whether you have lupus. If you do have lupus, lupus is a chronic condition, but, you can control its symptoms. For example, taking steroid medicines by mouth might help control the overactive immune response that's causing your lupus. Steroid creams can treat skin rashes. For achy joints, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines like ibuprofen, and anti-malaria drugs might help. You may need stronger drugs if these medicines alone don't control your lupus symptoms. When you have lupus, you need to be extra careful about your health. Wear sunscreen and protective clothing whenever you're out in the sun, so your skin doesn't get even more irritated. Stop smoking and make sure you're up-to-date on your vaccines. Have your heart checked regularly because lupus can cause heart complications. Lupus can be a lifelong journey, but life with lupus is a lot better today than it was just a few decades ago. Improved treatments can help control your joint pain and other symptoms so you can live a pretty normal life. To improve your outlook with lupus, stay on top of your health care, and do call your doctor right away if your symptoms get worse or you develop any new symptoms.

  • Breastfeeding - Animation

    Breastfeeding

    Animation

  • Breastfeeding - Animation

    How you feed your baby is a personal decision, but if you breastfeed you're choosing to give your child a natural, nutritional food source that can benefit you AND your baby. Let's talk about breastfeeding. Many women ask me, "What's so good about breastfeeding?" Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for a baby. It contains just the right amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and fat. And they vary over time within each feeding and over the months as your baby grows, tailored. Breast milk also gives your baby the digestive enzymes, minerals, vitamins, hormones and flavors they need. Plus your baby gets antibodies and other immune factors from YOU that can help your baby resist some infections. Infants who breastfeed are less likely to have allergies, ear infections, gas, diarrhea, and constipation, skin problems, stomach or intestinal infections. . . and are also less likely to experience wheezing, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Breastfeeding helps mom too! You form a unique bond with your baby. You might lose pregnancy weight faster and, you have a lower risk of breast cancer, some types of ovarian cancer, and osteoporosis. Your baby will need to be fed a lot, often nearly around the clock during the first few weeks after birth. It's perfectly normal. Some mothers find that bringing the baby in bed for feedings at night or placing a bassinet within reach, allows them to meet the child's needs while losing minimal rest. During the day, nap after feedings if you can. If you need to return to work soon after your baby is born, or you're a stay-at-home mom that needs some time to herself, there are plenty of pumping and storage systems available that let you continue to breastfeed your baby as long as you want. Breastfeeding goes smoothly for most people, once mother and baby get the hang of it. For others, it may take time and practice. If you run into any problems, contact a lactation consultant, a person who specializes in breastfeeding.

  • Cesarean section - Animation

    Cesarean section

    Animation

  • Cesarean section - Animation

    A cesarean section is a way to deliver a baby by cutting through the skin of the mother's abdomen. Although cesarean (C-sections) are relatively safe surgical procedures, they should only be performed in appropriate medical circumstances. Some of the most common reasons for a cesarean are:If the baby is in a feet first (breech) position. If the baby is in a shoulder first (transverse) position. If the baby’s head is too large to fit through the birth canal. If labor is prolonged and the mother’s cervix will not dilate to 10 centimeters. If the mother has placenta previa, where the placenta is blocking the birth canal. If there are signs of fetal distress which is when the fetus is in danger because of decreased oxygen flow to the fetus. Some common causes of fetal distress are:Compression of the umbilical cord. Compression of major blood vessels in the mother’s abdomen because of her birthing position. Maternal illness due to hypertension, anemia, or heart disease. Like many surgical procedures, cesarean sections require anesthesia. Usually, the mother is given an epidural or a spinal block. Both of these will numb the lower body, but the mother will remain awake. If the baby has to be delivered quickly, as in an emergency, the mother may be given a general anesthetic, which will make her fall asleep. During the surgery, an incision is made in the lower abdomen followed by an incision made in the uterus. There is no pain associated with either of these incisions because of the anesthesia. The doctor will open the uterus and the amniotic sac. Then the baby is carefully eased through the incision and out into the world. The procedure usually lasts about 20 minutes. Afterward, the physician delivers the placenta and stitches up the incisions in the uterus and abdominal wall. Usually, the mother is allowed to leave the hospital within a few days, barring complications like wound infections. One concern that many women have is whether they’ll be able to have a normal delivery after having a cesarean. The answer depends on what the reasons were for having the c-section in the first place. If it was because of a one-time problem, like umbilical cord compression or breech position, then the mother may be able to have a normal birth. Therefore, as long as the mother has had one or two previous cesarean deliveries with a low-transverse uterine incision, and there are no other indications for a cesarean, she is a candidate for vaginal birth after cesarean, also called VBAC. Cesarean sections are safe, and can even save the lives of both mother and baby during emergency deliveries. Expectant mothers should be prepared for the possibility of having one. Keep in mind, in childbirth, it’s not only the delivery method that matters, but the end result: a healthy mother and baby.

  • Diabetes - Animation

    Diabetes

    Animation

  • Diabetes - Animation

    Diabetes is on the rise worldwide, and is a serious, lifelong disease that can lead to heart disease, stroke, and lasting nerve, eye and foot problems. Let's talk about diabetes and the difference between the three types of diabetes. So, what exactly is diabetes and where does it come from?An organ in your body called the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that controls the levels of your blood sugar. When you have too little insulin in your body, or when insulin doesn't work right in your body, you can have diabetes, the condition where you have abnormally high glucose or sugar levels in your blood. Normally when you eat food, glucose enters your bloodstream. Glucose is your body's source of fuel. Your pancreas makes insulin to move glucose from your bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells, where your body turns it into energy. People with diabetes have too much blood sugar because their body cannot move glucose into fat, liver, and muscle cells to be changed into and stored for energy. There are three major types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes happens when the body makes little or no insulin. It usually is diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. But about 80% of people with diabetes have what's called Type 2 diabetes. This disease often occurs in middle adulthood, but young adults, teens, and now even children are now being diagnosed with it linked to high obesity rates. In Type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond to insulin appropriately. Another type of diabetes is called gestational diabetes. It's when high blood sugar develops during pregnancy in a woman who had not had diabetes beforehand. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born. But, still pay attention. These women are at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes over the next 5 years without a change in lifestyle. If you doctor suspects you have diabetes, you will probably have a hemoglobin A1c test. This is an average of your blood sugar levels over 3 months. You have pre-diabetes if your A1c is 5. 7 to 6. 4%. Anything at 6. 5% or higher indicates you have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a wake up call to focus on diet and exercise to try to control your blood sugar and prevent problems. If you do not control your blood sugar, you could develop eye problems, have problems with sores and infections in your feet, have high blood pressure and cholesterol problems, and have kidney, heart, and problems with other essential organs. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day, usually injected under the skin using a needle. Some people may be able to use a pump that delivers insulin to their body all the time. People with Type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their blood sugar through diet and exercise. But if not, they will need to take one or more drugs to lower their blood sugar levels. The good news is, people with any type of diabetes, who maintain good control over their blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure, have a lower risk of kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system problems, heart attack, and stroke, and can live, a long and healthy life.

  • Earache - Animation

    Earache

    Animation

  • Earache - Animation

    If your child has a sharp, dull, or burning pain in his ear, he's suffering an earache, a common reason parents take their children to the doctor. Several things can cause earaches, including Swimmer's ear (where the skin of the ear canal is inflamed), pressure or elevation changes (that stretch the sensitive ear drum), and ear infections. The Eustachian tube runs from the middle of each ear to the back of the throat. This tube drains fluid normally made in the middle ear. If the tube gets blocked, fluid can build up, leading to infection. This can lead to pressure behind the ear drum or an ear infection. If your child has an earache, your child will complain of ear pain. Babies with an earache will often be fussy and not sleep well. Many children have temporary hearing loss during, and right after, an ear infection or other cause of earache. Children under 6 months old who might have an ear infection need to see a doctor. Your child's doctor will look inside the child's ear using an instrument called an otoscope. The doctor might see areas of redness, air bubbles behind the ear drum, and fluid inside the middle ear. You can relieve an earache by placing a warm or cold pack or a warm or cold wet wash cloth to your child's ear for 20 minutes. For children old enough to safely chew gum, chewing may help relieve the pain and pressure of an earache. Oral pain medications or over-the-counter ear drops can help, as long as your child's eardrum has not ruptured. Vibrating devices, such as the EarDoc, are one way to relieve pain without medications. If an infection caused your child's earache, it is very treatable, but it may come back again. If your child has to take an antibiotic, make sure he takes all of the medicine.

  • Fungus

    Fungus

    Fungal infections are caused by microscopic organisms (fungi) that can live on the skin. They can live on the dead tissues of the hair, nails, and outer skin layers.

    Fungus

    illustration

  • Athlete's foot - tinea pedis

    Athlete's foot - tinea pedis

    This is a picture of Athlete's foot (tinea pedis). Tinea infection is caused by a fungus that grows on the skin, and is also referred to as ringworm. Cutaneous (skin) tinea infections are often named by their location such as pedis, meaning foot.

    Athlete's foot - tinea pedis

    illustration

  • Cryptococcosis on the forehead

    Cryptococcosis on the forehead

    This is an example of cryptococcus skin lesions on the forehead. Cryptococcus is a yeast (type of fungus) that seldom causes infection and is considered opportunistic (affecting individuals with weakened immune systems). Cryptococcus is one of the more common life-threatening fungal infections in people with AIDS.

    Cryptococcosis on the forehead

    illustration

  • Cryptococcus - cutaneous on the hand

    Cryptococcus - cutaneous on the hand

    These are cryptococcus skin lesions. Cryptococcus is a yeast (type of fungus) that seldom causes infection, but is considered opportunistic (it affects people with weakened immune systems). Cryptococcus is one of the more common life-threatening fungal infections people with AIDS.

    Cryptococcus - cutaneous on the hand

    illustration

  • Acrodermatitis

    Acrodermatitis

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a skin condition peculiar to children that may be accompanied by mild symptoms of fever and malaise. It may also be associated with hepatitis B infection or other viral infections. The lesions appear as small coppery-red, flat-topped firm papules that appear in crops and sometime in long linear strings, often symmetric.

    Acrodermatitis

    illustration

  • Gram stain

    Gram stain

    A Gram stain is a test used to help identify bacteria. The tested sample can be taken from body fluids that do not normally contain bacteria, such as blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid. A sample can also be taken from the site of a suspected infection, such as the throat, lungs, genitals, or skin. Bacteria are classified as either Gram-positive or Gram-negative, based on how they color in reaction with the Gram stain. The Gram stain is colored purple. When combined with the bacteria in a sample, the stain will either stay purple inside the bacteria (Gram-positive), or it will turn pink (Gram-negative). Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as bacteria that cause anthrax, diphtheria, and toxic shock syndrome. Examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E coli), Salmonella, Hemophilus influenzae, as well as many bacteria that cause urinary tract infections, pneumonia, or peritonitis. Gram stain can be done within a few hours. The results help providers choose the first antibiotics to use. Cultures of bacteria help identify specific bacteria, but take days to complete.

    Gram stain

    illustration

  • Skin

    Skin

    The skin is the largest organ of the body. The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection. It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature.

    Skin

    illustration

  • Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - Series

    Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - Series

    Presentation

  • Clubfoot repair  - series

    Clubfoot repair - series

    Presentation

  • Septoplasty  - series

    Septoplasty - series

    Presentation

  • Psoriasis - Animation

    Psoriasis

    Animation

  • Psoriasis - Animation

    Psoriasis is a common skin condition that causes skin redness and irritation. Most people with psoriasis have thick, red skin with flaky, silver-white patches called scales. Psoriasis may affect you at any age, but it usually begins between the ages of 15 and 35. You can't spread this disorder to others, but it does seem to be passed down through families. We think it probably occurs when your immune system mistakes healthy cells for dangerous substances. Skin cells grow deep in your skin, normally rising to the surface about once a month. But, in people with psoriasis, this process occurs too fast, usually happening in only about 2 weeks, and dead skin cells build up on your skin's surface. Many factors can trigger psoriasis, or make it more difficult to treat, including bacterial or viral infections, dry air or skin, injuries to your skin, some medications, stress, too much or too little sunlight, and even too much alcohol. In general, psoriasis may be very bad in people who have a weakened immune system. Psoriasis can appear suddenly or it can appear slowly. Often, it goes away and then flares up again, time after time. If you have psoriasis, you'll probably have irritated patches of skin on your body, often on your elbows and knees. But it can show up anywhere on your body, even your scalp. The skin patches may be itchy, dry and covered with silver, flaky scales. They may be pink in color and raised and thick. So, what do you do about psoriasis?Well, your doctor will need to look at your skin to make a diagnosis. Sometimes the doctor will take a skin sample, or a biopsy, to rule out other possible problems. Your treatment will focus on controlling your symptoms and preventing infections. In general, you have three options: topical medications like lotions or creams, pills or injections that affect your whole body, and therapy that uses light to treat psoriasis. But most people tend to use creams or ointments they place directly on their skin. Psoriasis is a life-long condition you can control with treatment. It may go away for a long time and then suddenly return. Fortunately, with the right treatment, it usually does not affect your general physical health.

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus - Animation

    Systemic lupus erythematosus

    Animation

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus - Animation

    When your joints are sore and achy, you might assume you have arthritis. But if that joint pain strikes when you're still in your 30's, or even your 20's, it might be another condition entirely. You might have an autoimmune disease called systemic lupus erythematosus, or lupus, for short. An autoimmune disease means that your immune system, which normally serves as your body's first defense against infections, mistakenly attacks your own tissues. Imagine if you hit your hand over and over and over again. The skin would turn red and swell up, and it would probably hurt quite a bit. Well, the same kind thing happens inside your body when your immune system attacks your tissues. They swell up, and they hurt. Almost everyone with lupus has joint pain and swelling, but depending on what part of your body the lupus is attacking, you could have other symptoms too. If it's your skin, you might have a rash on your face and body. If lupus attacks your digestive tract, you might feel sick to your stomach. If it attacks your brain or nervous system, you may have numbness, tingling, vision problems, and headaches. So, how do you know that you have lupus?Your doctor will ask about your symptoms, listen to your heartbeat, and examine your nervous system. Doctors often use a test to check for antinuclear antibodies, the immune substances that attack your tissues. You'll likely also need other blood or urine tests, and perhaps an x-ray, CT, ultrasound or biopsy, depending on your symptoms. Taken together, your symptoms and the results of these tests can help your doctor determine whether you have lupus. If you do have lupus, lupus is a chronic condition, but, you can control its symptoms. For example, taking steroid medicines by mouth might help control the overactive immune response that's causing your lupus. Steroid creams can treat skin rashes. For achy joints, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines like ibuprofen, and anti-malaria drugs might help. You may need stronger drugs if these medicines alone don't control your lupus symptoms. When you have lupus, you need to be extra careful about your health. Wear sunscreen and protective clothing whenever you're out in the sun, so your skin doesn't get even more irritated. Stop smoking and make sure you're up-to-date on your vaccines. Have your heart checked regularly because lupus can cause heart complications. Lupus can be a lifelong journey, but life with lupus is a lot better today than it was just a few decades ago. Improved treatments can help control your joint pain and other symptoms so you can live a pretty normal life. To improve your outlook with lupus, stay on top of your health care, and do call your doctor right away if your symptoms get worse or you develop any new symptoms.

  • Breastfeeding - Animation

    Breastfeeding

    Animation

  • Breastfeeding - Animation

    How you feed your baby is a personal decision, but if you breastfeed you're choosing to give your child a natural, nutritional food source that can benefit you AND your baby. Let's talk about breastfeeding. Many women ask me, "What's so good about breastfeeding?" Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for a baby. It contains just the right amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and fat. And they vary over time within each feeding and over the months as your baby grows, tailored. Breast milk also gives your baby the digestive enzymes, minerals, vitamins, hormones and flavors they need. Plus your baby gets antibodies and other immune factors from YOU that can help your baby resist some infections. Infants who breastfeed are less likely to have allergies, ear infections, gas, diarrhea, and constipation, skin problems, stomach or intestinal infections. . . and are also less likely to experience wheezing, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Breastfeeding helps mom too! You form a unique bond with your baby. You might lose pregnancy weight faster and, you have a lower risk of breast cancer, some types of ovarian cancer, and osteoporosis. Your baby will need to be fed a lot, often nearly around the clock during the first few weeks after birth. It's perfectly normal. Some mothers find that bringing the baby in bed for feedings at night or placing a bassinet within reach, allows them to meet the child's needs while losing minimal rest. During the day, nap after feedings if you can. If you need to return to work soon after your baby is born, or you're a stay-at-home mom that needs some time to herself, there are plenty of pumping and storage systems available that let you continue to breastfeed your baby as long as you want. Breastfeeding goes smoothly for most people, once mother and baby get the hang of it. For others, it may take time and practice. If you run into any problems, contact a lactation consultant, a person who specializes in breastfeeding.

  • Cesarean section - Animation

    Cesarean section

    Animation

  • Cesarean section - Animation

    A cesarean section is a way to deliver a baby by cutting through the skin of the mother's abdomen. Although cesarean (C-sections) are relatively safe surgical procedures, they should only be performed in appropriate medical circumstances. Some of the most common reasons for a cesarean are:If the baby is in a feet first (breech) position. If the baby is in a shoulder first (transverse) position. If the baby’s head is too large to fit through the birth canal. If labor is prolonged and the mother’s cervix will not dilate to 10 centimeters. If the mother has placenta previa, where the placenta is blocking the birth canal. If there are signs of fetal distress which is when the fetus is in danger because of decreased oxygen flow to the fetus. Some common causes of fetal distress are:Compression of the umbilical cord. Compression of major blood vessels in the mother’s abdomen because of her birthing position. Maternal illness due to hypertension, anemia, or heart disease. Like many surgical procedures, cesarean sections require anesthesia. Usually, the mother is given an epidural or a spinal block. Both of these will numb the lower body, but the mother will remain awake. If the baby has to be delivered quickly, as in an emergency, the mother may be given a general anesthetic, which will make her fall asleep. During the surgery, an incision is made in the lower abdomen followed by an incision made in the uterus. There is no pain associated with either of these incisions because of the anesthesia. The doctor will open the uterus and the amniotic sac. Then the baby is carefully eased through the incision and out into the world. The procedure usually lasts about 20 minutes. Afterward, the physician delivers the placenta and stitches up the incisions in the uterus and abdominal wall. Usually, the mother is allowed to leave the hospital within a few days, barring complications like wound infections. One concern that many women have is whether they’ll be able to have a normal delivery after having a cesarean. The answer depends on what the reasons were for having the c-section in the first place. If it was because of a one-time problem, like umbilical cord compression or breech position, then the mother may be able to have a normal birth. Therefore, as long as the mother has had one or two previous cesarean deliveries with a low-transverse uterine incision, and there are no other indications for a cesarean, she is a candidate for vaginal birth after cesarean, also called VBAC. Cesarean sections are safe, and can even save the lives of both mother and baby during emergency deliveries. Expectant mothers should be prepared for the possibility of having one. Keep in mind, in childbirth, it’s not only the delivery method that matters, but the end result: a healthy mother and baby.

  • Diabetes - Animation

    Diabetes

    Animation

  • Diabetes - Animation

    Diabetes is on the rise worldwide, and is a serious, lifelong disease that can lead to heart disease, stroke, and lasting nerve, eye and foot problems. Let's talk about diabetes and the difference between the three types of diabetes. So, what exactly is diabetes and where does it come from?An organ in your body called the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that controls the levels of your blood sugar. When you have too little insulin in your body, or when insulin doesn't work right in your body, you can have diabetes, the condition where you have abnormally high glucose or sugar levels in your blood. Normally when you eat food, glucose enters your bloodstream. Glucose is your body's source of fuel. Your pancreas makes insulin to move glucose from your bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells, where your body turns it into energy. People with diabetes have too much blood sugar because their body cannot move glucose into fat, liver, and muscle cells to be changed into and stored for energy. There are three major types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes happens when the body makes little or no insulin. It usually is diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. But about 80% of people with diabetes have what's called Type 2 diabetes. This disease often occurs in middle adulthood, but young adults, teens, and now even children are now being diagnosed with it linked to high obesity rates. In Type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond to insulin appropriately. Another type of diabetes is called gestational diabetes. It's when high blood sugar develops during pregnancy in a woman who had not had diabetes beforehand. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born. But, still pay attention. These women are at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes over the next 5 years without a change in lifestyle. If you doctor suspects you have diabetes, you will probably have a hemoglobin A1c test. This is an average of your blood sugar levels over 3 months. You have pre-diabetes if your A1c is 5. 7 to 6. 4%. Anything at 6. 5% or higher indicates you have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a wake up call to focus on diet and exercise to try to control your blood sugar and prevent problems. If you do not control your blood sugar, you could develop eye problems, have problems with sores and infections in your feet, have high blood pressure and cholesterol problems, and have kidney, heart, and problems with other essential organs. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day, usually injected under the skin using a needle. Some people may be able to use a pump that delivers insulin to their body all the time. People with Type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their blood sugar through diet and exercise. But if not, they will need to take one or more drugs to lower their blood sugar levels. The good news is, people with any type of diabetes, who maintain good control over their blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure, have a lower risk of kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system problems, heart attack, and stroke, and can live, a long and healthy life.

  • Earache - Animation

    Earache

    Animation

  • Earache - Animation

    If your child has a sharp, dull, or burning pain in his ear, he's suffering an earache, a common reason parents take their children to the doctor. Several things can cause earaches, including Swimmer's ear (where the skin of the ear canal is inflamed), pressure or elevation changes (that stretch the sensitive ear drum), and ear infections. The Eustachian tube runs from the middle of each ear to the back of the throat. This tube drains fluid normally made in the middle ear. If the tube gets blocked, fluid can build up, leading to infection. This can lead to pressure behind the ear drum or an ear infection. If your child has an earache, your child will complain of ear pain. Babies with an earache will often be fussy and not sleep well. Many children have temporary hearing loss during, and right after, an ear infection or other cause of earache. Children under 6 months old who might have an ear infection need to see a doctor. Your child's doctor will look inside the child's ear using an instrument called an otoscope. The doctor might see areas of redness, air bubbles behind the ear drum, and fluid inside the middle ear. You can relieve an earache by placing a warm or cold pack or a warm or cold wet wash cloth to your child's ear for 20 minutes. For children old enough to safely chew gum, chewing may help relieve the pain and pressure of an earache. Oral pain medications or over-the-counter ear drops can help, as long as your child's eardrum has not ruptured. Vibrating devices, such as the EarDoc, are one way to relieve pain without medications. If an infection caused your child's earache, it is very treatable, but it may come back again. If your child has to take an antibiotic, make sure he takes all of the medicine.

  • Fungus

    Fungus

    Fungal infections are caused by microscopic organisms (fungi) that can live on the skin. They can live on the dead tissues of the hair, nails, and outer skin layers.

    Fungus

    illustration

  • Athlete's foot - tinea pedis

    Athlete's foot - tinea pedis

    This is a picture of Athlete's foot (tinea pedis). Tinea infection is caused by a fungus that grows on the skin, and is also referred to as ringworm. Cutaneous (skin) tinea infections are often named by their location such as pedis, meaning foot.

    Athlete's foot - tinea pedis

    illustration

  • Cryptococcosis on the forehead

    Cryptococcosis on the forehead

    This is an example of cryptococcus skin lesions on the forehead. Cryptococcus is a yeast (type of fungus) that seldom causes infection and is considered opportunistic (affecting individuals with weakened immune systems). Cryptococcus is one of the more common life-threatening fungal infections in people with AIDS.

    Cryptococcosis on the forehead

    illustration

  • Cryptococcus - cutaneous on the hand

    Cryptococcus - cutaneous on the hand

    These are cryptococcus skin lesions. Cryptococcus is a yeast (type of fungus) that seldom causes infection, but is considered opportunistic (it affects people with weakened immune systems). Cryptococcus is one of the more common life-threatening fungal infections people with AIDS.

    Cryptococcus - cutaneous on the hand

    illustration

  • Acrodermatitis

    Acrodermatitis

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a skin condition peculiar to children that may be accompanied by mild symptoms of fever and malaise. It may also be associated with hepatitis B infection or other viral infections. The lesions appear as small coppery-red, flat-topped firm papules that appear in crops and sometime in long linear strings, often symmetric.

    Acrodermatitis

    illustration

  • Gram stain

    Gram stain

    A Gram stain is a test used to help identify bacteria. The tested sample can be taken from body fluids that do not normally contain bacteria, such as blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid. A sample can also be taken from the site of a suspected infection, such as the throat, lungs, genitals, or skin. Bacteria are classified as either Gram-positive or Gram-negative, based on how they color in reaction with the Gram stain. The Gram stain is colored purple. When combined with the bacteria in a sample, the stain will either stay purple inside the bacteria (Gram-positive), or it will turn pink (Gram-negative). Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as bacteria that cause anthrax, diphtheria, and toxic shock syndrome. Examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E coli), Salmonella, Hemophilus influenzae, as well as many bacteria that cause urinary tract infections, pneumonia, or peritonitis. Gram stain can be done within a few hours. The results help providers choose the first antibiotics to use. Cultures of bacteria help identify specific bacteria, but take days to complete.

    Gram stain

    illustration

  • Skin

    Skin

    The skin is the largest organ of the body. The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection. It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature.

    Skin

    illustration

  • Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - Series

    Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - Series

    Presentation

  • Clubfoot repair  - series

    Clubfoot repair - series

    Presentation

  • Septoplasty  - series

    Septoplasty - series

    Presentation

Review Date: 8/14/2021

Reviewed By: Elika Hoss, MD, Senior Associate Consultant, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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